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  Domain Name: PKc_MEK
Catalytic domain of the dual-specificity Protein Kinase, MAP/ERK Kinase. Protein kinases (PKs), MAP/ERK kinase (MEK) subfamily, catalytic (c) domain. PKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to serine/threonine or tyrosine residues on protein substrates. The MEK subfamily is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other protein serine/threonine kinases, protein tyrosine kinases, RIO kinases, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, choline kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways are important mediators of cellular responses to extracellular signals. The pathways involve a triple kinase core cascade comprising the MAP kinase (MAPK), which is phosphorylated and activated by a MAPK kinase (MAPKK or MKK), which itself is phosphorylated and activated by a MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MKKK). MEK1 and MEK2 are dual-specificity PKs that phosphorylate and activate the downstream targets, ERK(extracellular signal-regulated kinase) 1 and ERK2, on specific threonine and tyrosine residues. The ERK cascade starts with extracellular signals including growth factors, hormones, and neurotransmitters, which act through receptors and ion channels to initiate intracellular signaling that leads to the activation at the MAPKKK (Raf-1 or MOS) level, which leads to the transmission of signals to MEK1/2, and finally to ERK1/2. The ERK cascade plays an important role in cell proliferation, differentiation, oncogenic transformation, and cell cycle control, as well as in apoptosis and cell survival under certain conditions. This cascade has also been implicated in synaptic plasticity, migration, morphological determination, and stress response immunological reactions. Gain-of-function mutations in genes encoding ERK cascade proteins, including MEK1/2, cause cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome, a condition leading to multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation in patients.
No pairwise interactions are available for this conserved domain.

Total Mutations Found: 687
Total Disease Mutations Found: 340
This domain occurred 385 times on human genes (895 proteins).



  ADENOCARCINOMA OF LUNG, RESPONSE TO TYROS
  ADENOCARCINOMA OF LUNG, SOMATIC
  AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS 19
  AORTIC ANEURYSM, FAMILIAL THORACIC 7
  BLADDER CANCER, SOMATIC, INCLUDED
  BRACHYDACTYLY, TYPE A2
  BREAST CANCER, SUSCEPTIBILITY TO
  CAMPTODACTYLY, TALL STATURE, AND HEARING LOSS SYNDROME
  CARDIOFACIOCUTANEOUS SYNDROME 1
  CARDIOFACIOCUTANEOUS SYNDROME 3
  CARDIOFACIOCUTANEOUS SYNDROME 4
  CATARACT 6, AGE-RELATED CORTICAL
  CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA, RESISTANT TO IMATINIB
  COFFIN-LOWRY SYNDROME
  COFFIN-LOWRY SYNDROME, MILD
  COLON CANCER, HEREDITARY NONPOLYPOSIS, TYPE 6, SOMATIC, INCLUDED
  COLON CANCER, SOMATIC
  COLORECTAL CANCER, SOMATIC
  COLORECTAL CANCER, SOMATIC, INCLUDED;;
  CROUZON SYNDROME
  DEFICIENCY
  DIABETES MELLITUS, INSULIN-RESISTANT, WITH ACANTHOSIS NIGRICANS
  DIABETES MELLITUS, NONINSULIN-DEPENDENT
  DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE II
  ENDOCRINE-CEREBROOSTEODYSPLASIA
  EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY, EARLY INFANTILE, 2
  ESOPHAGEAL CANCER, SOMATIC
  FG SYNDROME 4
  FIBRODYSPLASIA OSSIFICANS PROGRESSIVA
  GASTRIC CANCER, SOMATIC
  GLIOBLASTOMA, SOMATIC
  GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE IXC
  HARTSFIELD SYNDROME
  HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE, SUSCEPTIBILITY TO, 1
  HYPERINSULINEMIC HYPOGLYCEMIA, FAMILIAL, 5
  HYPOCHONDROPLASIA
  HYPOGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM 2 WITH ANOSMIA
  HYPOGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM 2 WITH ANOSMIA, SUSCEPTIBILITY TO
  HYPOGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM 2 WITH OR WITHOUT ANOSMIA, SUSCEPTIBILITY
  HYPOGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM 2 WITHOUT ANOSMIA
  HYPOGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM 2 WITHOUT ANOSMIA, SUSCEPTIBILITY TO
  IN
  INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN, CONGENITAL, WITH ANHIDROSIS
  INSULIN RESISTANCE
  INSULIN RESISTANCE, INCLUDED
  IRAK4 DEFICIENCY
  JUVENILE POLYPOSIS SYNDROME
  LADD SYNDROME
  LEUKEMIA, PHILADELPHIA CHROMOSOME-POSITIVE, RESISTANT TO IMATINIB
  LOEYS-DIETZ SYNDROME, TYPE 1B
  LOEYS-DIETZ SYNDROME, TYPE 2B
  LYMPHOMA, NON-HODGKIN, SOMATIC
  LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE SYNDROME 1
  MALFORMATIONS
  MEGALENCEPHALY-POLYMICROGYRIA-POLYDACTYLY-HYDROCEPHALUS SYNDROME
  MELANOMA, MALIGNANT, SOMATIC
  MENTAL RETARDATION AND MICROCEPHALY WITH PONTINE AND CEREBELLAR HYPOPLASIA
  MENTAL RETARDATION, X-LINKED 19
  MENTAL RETARDATION, X-LINKED 30
  MENTAL RETARDATION, X-LINKED, WITH NYSTAGMUS
  MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA, TYPE IIA
  MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA, TYPE IIB
  MULTIPLE MYELOMA, SOMATIC, INCLUDED;;
  MYASTHENIC SYNDROME, CONGENITAL, ASSOCIATED WITH ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR
  NEPHRONOPHTHISIS 9 (NPHP9)
  NEUROPATHY, HEREDITARY SENSORY, TYPE II
  NONSMALL CELL LUNG CANCER, RESISTANCE TO TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITOR
  NONSMALL CELL LUNG CANCER, RESPONSE TO TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITOR IN,
  NOONAN SYNDROME 7
  OBESITY, HYPERPHAGIA, AND DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY
  OGUCHI DISEASE 2
  OVARIAN CANCER, SOMATIC
  PARKINSON DISEASE 8, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT
  PEUTZ-JEGHERS SYNDROME
  PFEIFFER SYNDROME
  PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA, INCLUDED
  PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA, SOMATIC, IN
  PROSTATE CANCER, PROGRESSION AND METASTASIS OF
  PULMONARY HYPERTENSION, PRIMARY, 1
  PULMONARY HYPERTENSION, PRIMARY, 1, WITH HEREDITARY HEMORRHAGIC TELANGIECTASIA
  PULMONARY HYPERTENSION, PRIMARY, DEXFENFLURAMINE-ASSOCIATED, INCLUDED
  PULMONARY VENOOCCLUSIVE DISEASE
  RENAL AGENESIS
  RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA 62
  RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA 62 (RP62)
  SADDAN DYSPLASIA
  SCAPHOCEPHALY, MAXILLARY RETRUSION, AND MENTAL RETARDATION, INCLUDED
  SELECTIVE T-CELL DEFECT
  SHORT RIB-POLYDACTYLY SYNDROME 2A (SRPS2A)
  SHORT RIB-POLYDACTYLY SYNDROME, TYPE IIA
  SOMATIC
  SPERMATOCYTIC SEMINOMA, SOMATIC, INCLUDED
  SPERMATOGENIC FAILURE 5
  SPINOCEREBELLAR ATAXIA 14
  SPONDYLOMETAEPIPHYSEAL DYSPLASIA, SHORT LIMB-HAND TYPE
  T-CELL IMMUNODEFICIENCY, RECURRENT INFECTIONS, AUTOIMMUNITY, AND CARDIAC
  TESTICULAR TUMOR, SOMATIC
  THANATOPHORIC DYSPLASIA, TYPE I
  THANATOPHORIC DYSPLASIA, TYPE I, INCLUDED
  THANATOPHORIC DYSPLASIA, TYPE II
  THROMBOCYTOPENIA 2
  THYROID CARCINOMA, FAMILIAL MEDULLARY
  THYROID CARCINOMA, FAMILIAL MEDULLARY, INCLUDED
  THYROID CARCINOMA, FOLLICULAR, SOMATIC, INCLUDED
  THYROID CARCINOMA, PAPILLARY, SOMATIC, INCLUDED;;|
  THYROID CARCINOMA, SPORADIC MEDULLARY, INCLUDED;;
  TO
  VENOUS MALFORMATIONS, MULTIPLE CUTANEOUS AND MUCOSAL


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