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  Domain Name: GAF
GAF domain. This domain is present in cGMP-specific phosphodiesterases, adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases, phytochromes, FhlA and NifA. Adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases catalyze ATP and GTP to the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, respectively, these products up-regulating catalytic activity by binding to the regulatory GAF domain(s). The opposite hydrolysis reaction is catalyzed by phosphodiesterase. cGMP-dependent 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase catalyzes the conversion of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic phosphate to guanosine 5'-phosphate. Here too, cGMP regulates catalytic activity by GAF-domain binding. Phytochromes are regulatory photoreceptors in plants and bacteria which exist in two thermally-stable states that are reversibly inter-convertible by light: the Pr state absorbs maximally in the red region of the spectrum, while the Pfr state absorbs maximally in the far-red region. This domain is also found in FhlA (formate hydrogen lyase transcriptional activator) and NifA, a transcriptional activator which is required for activation of most Nif operons which are directly involved in nitrogen fixation. NifA interacts with sigma-54.
No pairwise interactions found for the domain GAF

Total Mutations Found: 18
Total Disease Mutations Found: 7
This domain occurred 7 times on human genes (24 proteins).



  ACHROMATOPISIA 5
  NIGHT BLINDNESS, CONGENITAL STATIONARY, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT 2
  PIGMENTED NODULAR ADRENOCORTICAL DISEASE, PRIMARY, 2
  RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA 40
  RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA 43


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Range on the Protein:  

   Protein ID            Protein Position

Domain Position:  


No Conserved Features/Sites Found for GAF















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Please Cite: Peterson, T.A., Adadey, A., Santana-Cruz ,I., Sun, Y., Winder A, Kann, M.G., (2010) DMDM: Domain Mapping of Disease Mutations. Bioinformatics 26 (19), 2458-2459.

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