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  Domain Name: Glyoxalase_I
Glyoxalase I catalyzes the isomerization of the hemithioacetal, formed by a 2-oxoaldehyde and glutathione, to S-D-lactoylglutathione. Glyoxalase I (also known as lactoylglutathione lyase; EC 4.4.1.5) is part of the glyoxalase system, a two-step system for detoxifying methylglyoxal, a side product of glycolysis. This system is responsible for the conversion of reactive, acyclic alpha-oxoaldehydes into the corresponding alpha-hydroxyacids and involves 2 enzymes, glyoxalase I and II. Glyoxalase I catalyses an intramolecular redox reaction of the hemithioacetal (formed from methylglyoxal and glutathione) to form the thioester, S-D-lactoylglutathione. This reaction involves the transfer of two hydrogen atoms from C1 to C2 of the methylglyoxal, and proceeds via an ene-diol intermediate. Glyoxalase I has a requirement for bound metal ions for catalysis. Eukaryotic glyoxalase I prefers the divalent cation zinc as cofactor, whereas Escherichia coil and other prokaryotic glyoxalase I uses nickel. However, eukaryotic Trypanosomatid parasites also use nickel as a cofactor, which could possibly be explained by acquiring their GLOI gene by horizontal gene transfer. Human glyoxalase I is a two-domain enzyme and it has the structure of a domain-swapped dimer with two active sites located at the dimer interface. In yeast, in various plants, insects and Plasmodia, glyoxalase I is four-domain, possibly the result of a further gene duplication and an additional gene fusing event.
No pairwise interactions are available for this conserved domain.

Total Mutations Found: 2
Total Disease Mutations Found: 0
This domain occurred 3 times on human genes (5 proteins).




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Range on the Protein:  

   Protein ID            Protein Position

Domain Position:  


Feature Name:Total Found:
active site
metal binding site
glutathione binding site
dimer interface













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Please Cite: Peterson, T.A., Adadey, A., Santana-Cruz ,I., Sun, Y., Winder A, Kann, M.G., (2010) DMDM: Domain Mapping of Disease Mutations. Bioinformatics 26 (19), 2458-2459.

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