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  Domain Name: PAL-HAL
Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and histidine ammonia-lyase (HAL). PAL and HAL are members of the Lyase class I_like superfamily of enzymes that, catalyze similar beta-elimination reactions and are active as homotetramers. The four active sites of the homotetrameric enzyme are each formed by residues from three different subunits. PAL, present in plants and fungi, catalyzes the conversion of L-phenylalanine to E-cinnamic acid. HAL, found in several bacteria and animals, catalyzes the conversion of L-histidine to E-urocanic acid. Both PAL and HAL contain the cofactor 3, 5-dihydro-5-methylidene-4H-imidazol-4-one (MIO) which is formed by autocatalytic excision/cyclization of the internal tripeptide, Ala-Ser-Gly. PAL is being explored as enzyme substitution therapy for Phenylketonuria (PKU), a disorder which involves an inability to metabolize phenylalanine. HAL failure in humans results in the disease histidinemia.
No pairwise interactions are available for this conserved domain.

Total Mutations Found: 5
Total Disease Mutations Found: 4
This domain occurred 1 times on human genes (1 proteins).


 If you've navigated here from a protein, hovering over a position on the weblogo will display the corresponding protein position for that domain position.

 The histograms below the weblogo indicate mutations found on the domain. Red is for disease (OMIM) and blue is for SNPs.

 Functional Features are displayed as orange boxes under the histograms. You can choose which features are displayed in the box below.

Range on the Protein:  

   Protein ID            Protein Position

Domain Position:  

Feature Name:Total Found:
active sites
tetramer interface

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Please Cite: Peterson, T.A., Adadey, A., Santana-Cruz ,I., Sun, Y., Winder A, Kann, M.G., (2010) DMDM: Domain Mapping of Disease Mutations. Bioinformatics 26 (19), 2458-2459.

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