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  Domain Name: PLDc_SF
Catalytic domain of phospholipase D superfamily proteins. Catalytic domain of phospholipase D (PLD) superfamily proteins. The PLD superfamily is composed of a large and diverse group of proteins including plant, mammalian and bacterial PLDs, bacterial cardiolipin (CL) synthases, bacterial phosphatidylserine synthases (PSS), eukaryotic phosphatidylglycerophosphate (PGP) synthase, eukaryotic tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (Tdp1), and some bacterial endonucleases (Nuc and BfiI), among others. PLD enzymes hydrolyze phospholipid phosphodiester bonds to yield phosphatidic acid and a free polar head group. They can also catalyze the transphosphatidylation of phospholipids to acceptor alcohols. The majority of members in this superfamily contain a short conserved sequence motif (H-x-K-x(4)-D, where x represents any amino acid residue), called the HKD signature motif. There are varying expanded forms of this motif in different family members. Some members contain variant HKD motifs. Most PLD enzymes are monomeric proteins with two HKD motif-containing domains. Two HKD motifs from two domains form a single active site. Some PLD enzymes have only one copy of the HKD motif per subunit but form a functionally active dimer, which has a single active site at the dimer interface containing the two HKD motifs from both subunits. Different PLD enzymes may have evolved through domain fusion of a common catalytic core with separate substrate recognition domains. Despite their various catalytic functions and a very broad range of substrate specificities, the diverse group of PLD enzymes can bind to a phosphodiester moiety. Most of them are active as bi-lobed monomers or dimers, and may possess similar core structures for catalytic activity. They are generally thought to utilize a common two-step ping-pong catalytic mechanism, involving an enzyme-substrate intermediate, to cleave phosphodiester bonds. The two histidine residues from the two HKD motifs play key roles in the catalysis. Upon substrate binding, a histidine from one HKD motif could function as the nucleophile, attacking the phosphodiester bond to create a covalent phosphohistidine intermediate, while the other histidine residue from the second HKD motif could serve as a general acid, stabilizing the leaving group.
No pairwise interactions are available for this conserved domain.

Total Mutations Found: 4
Total Disease Mutations Found: 0
This domain occurred 9 times on human genes (17 proteins).

 If you've navigated here from a protein, hovering over a position on the weblogo will display the corresponding protein position for that domain position.

 The histograms below the weblogo indicate mutations found on the domain. Red is for disease (OMIM) and blue is for SNPs.

 Functional Features are displayed as orange boxes under the histograms. You can choose which features are displayed in the box below.

Range on the Protein:  

   Protein ID            Protein Position

Domain Position:  

Feature Name:Total Found:
putative active site
catalytic site

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Please Cite: Peterson, T.A., Adadey, A., Santana-Cruz ,I., Sun, Y., Winder A, Kann, M.G., (2010) DMDM: Domain Mapping of Disease Mutations. Bioinformatics 26 (19), 2458-2459.

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