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  Domain Name: S-100
S-100: S-100 domain, which represents the largest family within the superfamily of proteins carrying the Ca-binding EF-hand motif. Note that this S-100 hierarchy contains only S-100 EF-hand domains, other EF-hands have been modeled separately. S100 proteins are expressed exclusively in vertebrates, and are implicated in intracellular and extracellular regulatory activities. Intracellularly, S100 proteins act as Ca-signaling or Ca-buffering proteins. The most unusual characteristic of certain S100 proteins is their occurrence in extracellular space, where they act in a cytokine-like manner through RAGE, the receptor for advanced glycation products. Structural data suggest that many S100 members exist within cells as homo- or heterodimers and even oligomers; oligomerization contributes to their functional diversification. Upon binding calcium, most S100 proteins change conformation to a more open structure exposing a hydrophobic cleft. This hydrophobic surface represents the interaction site of S100 proteins with their target proteins. There is experimental evidence showing that many S100 proteins have multiple binding partners with diverse mode of interaction with different targets. In addition to S100 proteins (such as S100A1,-3,-4,-6,-7,-10,-11,and -13), this group includes the ''fused'' gene family, a group of calcium binding S100-related proteins. The ''fused'' gene family includes multifunctional epidermal differentiation proteins - profilaggrin, trichohyalin, repetin, hornerin, and cornulin; functionally these proteins are associated with keratin intermediate filaments and partially crosslinked to the cell envelope. These ''fused'' gene proteins contain N-terminal sequence with two Ca-binding EF-hands motif, which may be associated with calcium signaling in epidermal cells and autoprocessing in a calcium-dependent manner. In contrast to S100 proteins, "fused" gene family proteins contain an extraordinary high number of almost perfect peptide repeats with regular array of polar and charged residues similar to many known cell envelope proteins.
No pairwise interactions are available for this conserved domain.

Total Mutations Found: 61
Total Disease Mutations Found: 0
This domain occurred 25 times on human genes (37 proteins).




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Range on the Protein:  

   Protein ID            Protein Position

Domain Position:  


Feature Name:Total Found:
Ca2+ binding site
dimerization interface










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Please Cite: Peterson, T.A., Adadey, A., Santana-Cruz ,I., Sun, Y., Winder A, Kann, M.G., (2010) DMDM: Domain Mapping of Disease Mutations. Bioinformatics 26 (19), 2458-2459.

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