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  Domain Name: Trans_IPPS_HT
Trans-Isoprenyl Diphosphate Synthases, head-to-tail. These trans-Isoprenyl Diphosphate Synthases (Trans_IPPS) catalyze head-to-tail (HT) (1'-4) condensation reactions. This CD includes all-trans (E)-isoprenyl diphosphate synthases which synthesize various chain length (C10, C15, C20, C25, C30, C35, C40, C45, and C50) linear isoprenyl diphosphates from precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). They catalyze the successive 1'-4 condensation of the 5-carbon IPP to allylic substrates geranyl-, farnesyl-, or geranylgeranyl-diphosphate. Isoprenoid chain elongation reactions proceed via electrophilic alkylations in which a new carbon-carbon single bond is generated through interaction between a highly reactive electron-deficient allylic carbocation and an electron-rich carbon-carbon double bond. The catalytic site consists of a large central cavity formed by mostly antiparallel alpha helices with two aspartate-rich regions (DDXX(XX)D) located on opposite walls. These residues mediate binding of prenyl phosphates via bridging Mg2+ ions, inducing proposed conformational changes that close the active site to solvent, protecting and stabilizing reactive carbocation intermediates. Farnesyl diphosphate synthases produce the precursors of steroids, cholesterol, sesquiterpenes, farnsylated proteins, heme, and vitamin K12; and geranylgeranyl diphosphate and longer chain synthases produce the precursors of carotenoids, retinoids, diterpenes, geranylgeranylated chlorophylls, ubiquinone, and archaeal ether linked lipids. Isoprenyl diphosphate synthases are widely distributed among archaea, bacteria, and eukareya.
No pairwise interactions are available for this conserved domain.

Total Mutations Found: 3
Total Disease Mutations Found: 3
This domain occurred 4 times on human genes (8 proteins).


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 The histograms below the weblogo indicate mutations found on the domain. Red is for disease (OMIM) and blue is for SNPs.

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Range on the Protein:  

   Protein ID            Protein Position

Domain Position:  

Feature Name:Total Found:
substrate binding pocket
substrate-Mg2+ binding si
active site lid residues
chain length determinatio
catalytic residues
aspartate-rich region 1
aspartate-rich region 2

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Please Cite: Peterson, T.A., Adadey, A., Santana-Cruz ,I., Sun, Y., Winder A, Kann, M.G., (2010) DMDM: Domain Mapping of Disease Mutations. Bioinformatics 26 (19), 2458-2459.

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