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PSSM ID ↕Domain Name ↕CD Accession ↕Description ↕
1762172-desacetyl-2-hydroxcd082552-desacetyl-2-hydroxyethyl bacteriochlorophyllide and other MDR family members. This subgroup of the medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family has members identified as 2-desacetyl-2-hydroxyethyl bacteriochlorophyllide A dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenases. The medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, which contains the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn) and related proteins, is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. MDRs display a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P) binding-Rossmann fold domain of a beta-alpha form and an N-terminal catalytic domain with distant homology to GroES. The MDR group contains a host of activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. Active site zinc has a catalytic role, while structural zinc aids in stability.
239784AAK_NAGK-UCcd04251AAK_NAGK-UC: N-Acetyl-L-glutamate kinase - uncharacterized (NAGK-UC). This domain is similar to Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa NAGKs which catalyze the phosphorylation of the gamma-COOH group of N-acetyl-L-glutamate (NAG) by ATP in the second step of microbial arginine biosynthesis. These uncharacterized domain sequences are found in some bacteria (Deinococci and Chloroflexi) and archea and belong to the Amino Acid Kinase Superfamily (AAK).
219824AA_permease_Npfam08403Amino acid permease N-terminal. This domain is found to the N-terminus of the amino acid permease domain (pfam00324) in metazoan Na-K-Cl cotransporters.
213220ABCC_ATM1_transportecd03253ATP-binding cassette domain of iron-sulfur clusters transporter, subfamily C. ATM1 is an ABC transporter that is expressed in the mitochondria. Although the specific function of ATM1 is unknown, its disruption results in the accumulation of excess mitochondrial iron, loss of mitochondrial cytochromes, oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA, and decreased levels of cytosolic heme proteins. ABC transporters are a large family of proteins involved in the transport of a wide variety of different compounds, like sugars, ions, peptides, and more complex organic molecules. The nucleotide binding domain shows the highest similarity between all members of the family. ABC transporters are a subset of nucleotide hydrolases that contain a signature motif, Q-loop, and H-loop/switch region, in addition to, the Walker A motif/P-loop and Walker B motif commonly found in a number of ATP- and GTP-binding and hydrolyzing proteins.
213217ABCC_MRP_domain1cd03250ATP-binding cassette domain 1 of multidrug resistance-associated protein, subfamily C. This subfamily is also known as MRP (multidrug resistance-associated protein). Some of the MRP members have five additional transmembrane segments in their N-terminus, but the function of these additional membrane-spanning domains is not clear. The MRP was found in the multidrug-resisting lung cancer cell in which p-glycoprotein was not overexpressed. MRP exports glutathione by drug stimulation, as well as, certain substrates in conjugated forms with anions, such as glutathione, glucuronate, and sulfate.
213211ABCC_MRP_domain2cd03244ATP-binding cassette domain 2 of multidrug resistance-associated protein. The ABC subfamily C is also known as MRP (multidrug resistance-associated protein). Some of the MRP members have five additional transmembrane segments in their N-terminus, but the function of these additional membrane-spanning domains is not clear. The MRP was found in the multidrug-resistance lung cancer cell in which p-glycoprotein was not overexpressed. MRP exports glutathione by drug stimulation, as well as, certain substrates in conjugated forms with anions, such as glutathione, glucuronate, and sulfate.
213200ABCG_PDR_domain1cd03233First domain of the pleiotropic drug resistance-like subfamily G of ATP-binding cassette transporters. The pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) is a well-described phenomenon occurring in fungi and shares several similarities with processes in bacteria and higher eukaryotes. This PDR subfamily represents domain I of its (ABC-IM)2 organization. ABC transporters are a large family of proteins involved in the transport of a wide variety of different compounds including sugars, ions, peptides, and more complex organic molecules. The nucleotide-binding domain shows the highest similarity between all members of the family. ABC transporters are a subset of nucleotide hydrolases that contain a signature motif, Q-loop, and H-loop/switch region, in addition to, the Walker A motif/P-loop and Walker B motif commonly found in a number of ATP- and GTP-binding and hydrolyzing proteins.
213199ABCG_PDR_domain2cd03232Second domain of the pleiotropic drug resistance-like (PDR) subfamily G of ATP-binding cassette transporters. The pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) is a well-described phenomenon occurring in fungi and shares several similarities with processes in bacteria and higher eukaryotes. This PDR subfamily represents domain I of its (ABC-IM)2 organization. ABC transporters are a large family of proteins involved in the transport of a wide variety of different compounds including sugars, ions, peptides, and more complex organic molecules. The nucleotide binding domain shows the highest similarity between all members of the family. ABC transporters are a subset of nucleotide hydrolases that contain a signature motif, Q-loop, and H-loop/switch region, in addition to, the Walker A motif/P-loop and Walker B motif commonly found in a number of ATP- and GTP-binding and hydrolyzing proteins.
213232ABC_DrrAcd03265Daunorubicin/doxorubicin resistance ATP-binding protein. DrrA is the ATP-binding protein component of a bacterial exporter complex that confers resistance to the antibiotics daunorubicin and doxorubicin. In addition to DrrA, the complex includes an integral membrane protein called DrrB. DrrA belongs to the ABC family of transporters and shares sequence and functional similarities with a protein found in cancer cells called P-glycoprotein. ABC transporters are a large family of proteins involved in the transport of a wide variety of different compounds, like sugars, ions, peptides, and more complex organic molecules. The nucleotide binding domain shows the highest similarity between all members of the family. ABC transporters are a subset of nucleotide hydrolases that contain a signature motif, Q-loop, and H-loop/switch region in addition to the Walker A motif/P-loop and Walker B motif commonly found in a number of ATP- and GTP-binding and hydrolyzing proteins.
213231ABC_drug_resistance_cd03264ABC-type multidrug transport system, ATPase component. The biological function of this family is not well characterized, but display ABC domains similar to members of ABCA subfamily. ABC transporters are a large family of proteins involved in the transport of a wide variety of different compounds, like sugars, ions, peptides, and more complex organic molecules. The nucleotide binding domain shows the highest similarity between all members of the family. ABC transporters are a subset of nucleotide hydrolases that contain a signature motif, Q-loop, and H-loop/switch region, in addition to, the Walker A motif/P-loop and Walker B motif commonly found in a number of ATP- and GTP-binding and hydrolyzing proteins.
213197ABC_DR_subfamily_Acd03230ATP-binding cassette domain of the drug resistance transporter and related proteins, subfamily A. This family of ATP-binding proteins belongs to a multi-subunit transporter involved in drug resistance (BcrA and DrrA), nodulation, lipid transport, and lantibiotic immunity. In bacteria and archaea, these transporters usually include an ATP-binding protein and one or two integral membrane proteins. Eukaryotic systems of the ABCA subfamily display ABC domains that are quite similar to this family. The ATP-binding domain shows the highest similarity between all members of the ABC transporter family. ABC transporters are a subset of nucleotide hydrolases that contain a signature motif, Q-loop, and H-loop/switch region, in addition to, the Walker A motif/P-loop and Walker B motif commonly found in a number of ATP- and GTP-binding and hydrolyzing proteins.
213236ABC_putative_ATPasecd03269ATP-binding cassette domain of an uncharacterized transporter. This subgroup is related to the subfamily A transporters involved in drug resistance, nodulation, lipid transport, and bacteriocin and lantibiotic immunity. In eubacteria and archaea, the typical organization consists of one ABC and one or two integral membranes. ABC transporters are a large family of proteins involved in the transport of a wide variety of different compounds, like sugars, ions, peptides and more complex organic molecules. The nucleotide binding domain shows the highest similarity between all members of the family. ABC transporters are a subset of nucleotide hydrolases that contain a signature motif, Q-loop, and H-loop/switch region in addition to the Walker A motif/P-loop and Walker B motif commonly found in a number of ATP- and GTP-binding and hydrolyzing proteins.
213242ABC_SMC1_eukcd03275ATP-binding cassette domain of eukaryotic SMC1 proteins. The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) proteins are large (approximately 110 to 170 kDa), and each is arranged into five recognizable domains. Amino-acid sequence homology of SMC proteins between species is largely confined to the amino- and carboxy-terminal globular domains. The amino-terminal domain contains a 'Walker A' nucleotide-binding domain (GxxGxGKS/T, in the single-letter amino-acid code), which by mutational studies has been shown to be essential in several proteins. The carboxy-terminal domain contains a sequence (the DA-box) that resembles a 'Walker B' motif, and a motif with homology to the signature sequence of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of ATPases. The sequence homology within the carboxy-terminal domain is relatively high within the SMC1-SMC4 group, whereas SMC5 and SMC6 show some divergence in both of these sequences. In eukaryotic cells, the proteins are found as heterodimers of SMC1 paired with SMC3, SMC2 with SMC4, and SMC5 with SMC6 (formerly known as Rad18).
213240ABC_SMC2_eukcd03273ATP-binding cassette domain of eukaryotic SMC2 proteins. The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) proteins are large (approximately 110 to 170 kDa), and each is arranged into five recognizable domains. Amino-acid sequence homology of SMC proteins between species is largely confined to the amino- and carboxy-terminal globular domains. The amino-terminal domain contains a 'Walker A' nucleotide-binding domain (GxxGxGKS/T, in the single-letter amino-acid code), which by mutational studies has been shown to be essential in several proteins. The carboxy-terminal domain contains a sequence (the DA-box) that resembles a 'Walker B' motif, and a motif with homology to the signature sequence of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of ATPases. The sequence homology within the carboxy-terminal domain is relatively high within the SMC1-SMC4 group, whereas SMC5 and SMC6 show some divergence in both of these sequences. In eukaryotic cells, the proteins are found as heterodimers of SMC1 paired with SMC3, SMC2 with SMC4, and SMC5 with SMC6 (formerly known as Rad18).
213239ABC_SMC3_eukcd03272ATP-binding cassette domain of eukaryotic SMC3 proteins. The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) proteins are large (approximately 110 to 170 kDa), and each is arranged into five recognizable domains. Amino-acid sequence homology of SMC proteins between species is largely confined to the amino- and carboxy-terminal globular domains. The amino-terminal domain contains a 'Walker A' nucleotide-binding domain (GxxGxGKS/T, in the single-letter amino-acid code), which by mutational studies has been shown to be essential in several proteins. The carboxy-terminal domain contains a sequence (the DA-box) that resembles a 'Walker B' motif, and a motif with homology to the signature sequence of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of ATPases. The sequence homology within the carboxy-terminal domain is relatively high within the SMC1-SMC4 group, whereas SMC5 and SMC6 show some divergence in both of these sequences. In eukaryotic cells, the proteins are found as heterodimers of SMC1 paired with SMC3, SMC2 with SMC4, and SMC5 with SMC6 (formerly known as Rad18).
213241ABC_SMC4_eukcd03274ATP-binding cassette domain of eukaryotic SMC4 proteins. The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) proteins are large (approximately 110 to 170 kDa), and each is arranged into five recognizable domains. Amino-acid sequence homology of SMC proteins between species is largely confined to the amino- and carboxy-terminal globular domains. The amino-terminal domain contains a 'Walker A' nucleotide-binding domain (GxxGxGKS/T, in the single-letter amino-acid code), which by mutational studies has been shown to be essential in several proteins. The carboxy-terminal domain contains a sequence (the DA-box) that resembles a 'Walker B' motif, and a motif with homology to the signature sequence of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of ATPases. The sequence homology within the carboxy-terminal domain is relatively high within the SMC1-SMC4 group, whereas SMC5 and SMC6 show some divergence in both of these sequences. In eukaryotic cells, the proteins are found as heterodimers of SMC1 paired with SMC3, SMC2 with SMC4, and SMC5 with SMC6 (formerly known as Rad18).
213244ABC_SMC5_eukcd03277ATP-binding cassette domain of eukaryotic SMC5 proteins. The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) proteins are large (approximately 110 to 170 kDa), and each is arranged into five recognizable domains. Amino-acid sequence homology of SMC proteins between species is largely confined to the amino- and carboxy-terminal globular domains. The amino-terminal domain contains a 'Walker A' nucleotide-binding domain (GxxGxGKS/T, in the single-letter amino-acid code), which by mutational studies has been shown to be essential in several proteins. The carboxy-terminal domain contains a sequence (the DA-box) that resembles a 'Walker B' motif, and a motif with homology to the signature sequence of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of ATPases. The sequence homology within the carboxy-terminal domain is relatively high within the SMC1-SMC4 group, whereas SMC5 and SMC6 show some divergence in both of these sequences. In eukaryotic cells, the proteins are found as heterodimers of SMC1 paired with SMC3, SMC2 with SMC4, and SMC5 with SMC6 (formerly known as Rad18).
213243ABC_SMC6_eukcd03276ATP-binding cassette domain of eukaryotic SM6 proteins. The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) proteins are large (approximately 110 to 170 kDa), and each is arranged into five recognizable domains. Amino-acid sequence homology of SMC proteins between species is largely confined to the amino- and carboxy-terminal globular domains. The amino-terminal domain contains a 'Walker A' nucleotide-binding domain (GxxGxGKS/T, in the single-letter amino-acid code), which by mutational studies has been shown to be essential in several proteins. The carboxy-terminal domain contains a sequence (the DA-box) that resembles a 'Walker B' motif, and a motif with homology to the signature sequence of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of ATPases. The sequence homology within the carboxy-terminal domain is relatively high within the SMC1-SMC4 group, whereas SMC5 and SMC6 show some divergence in both of these sequences. In eukaryotic cells, the proteins are found as heterodimers of SMC1 paired with SMC3, SMC2 with SMC4, and SMC5 with SMC6 (formerly known as Rad18).
213245ABC_SMC_barmotincd03278ATP-binding cassette domain of barmotin, a member of the SMC protein family. Barmotin is a tight junction-associated protein expressed in rat epithelial cells which is thought to have an important regulatory role in tight junction barrier function. Barmotin belongs to the SMC protein family. SMC proteins are large (approximately 110 to 170 kDa), and each is arranged into five recognizable domains. Amino-acid sequence homology of SMC proteins between species is largely confined to the amino- and carboxy-terminal globular domains. The amino-terminal domain contains a 'Walker A' nucleotide-binding domain (GxxGxGKS/T, in the single-letter amino-acid code), which by mutational studies has been shown to be essential in several proteins. The carboxy-terminal domain contains a sequence (the DA-box) that resembles a 'Walker B' motif, and a motif with homology to the signature sequence of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of ATPases. The sequence homology within the carboxy-terminal domain is relatively high within the SMC1-SMC4 group, whereas SMC5 and SMC6 show some divergence in both of these sequences. In eukaryotic cells, the proteins are found as heterodimers of SMC1 paired with SMC3, SMC2 with SMC4, and SMC5 with SMC6 (formerly known as Rad18).
202845ABMpfam03992Antibiotic biosynthesis monooxygenase. This domain is found in monooxygenases involved in the biosynthesis of several antibiotics by Streptomyces species. It's occurrence as a repeat in Streptomyces coelicolor SCO1909 is suggestive that the other proteins function as multimers. There is also a conserved histidine which is likely to be an active site residue.
238810AcnA_Mitochon_Swivelcd01578Mitochondrial aconitase A swivel domain. Aconitase (also known as aconitate hydratase and citrate hydro-lyase) catalyzes the reversible isomerization of citrate and isocitrate as part of the TCA cycle. This is the aconitase swivel domain, which undergoes swivelling conformational change in the enzyme mechanism. In eukaryotes two isozymes of aconitase are known to exist: one found in the mitochondrial matrix and the other found in the cytoplasm. This is the mitochondrial form. The mitochondrial product is coded by a nuclear gene. Most members of this subfamily are mitochondrial but there are some bacterial members.
153129Aconitasecd01351Aconitase catalytic domain; Aconitase catalyzes the reversible isomerization of citrate and isocitrate as part of the TCA cycle. Aconitase catalytic domain. Aconitase (aconitate hydratase) catalyzes the reversible isomerization of citrate and isocitrate as part of the TCA cycle. Cis-aconitate is formed as an intermediate product during the course of the reaction. In eukaryotes two isozymes of aconitase are known to exist: one found in the mitochondrial matrix and the other found in the cytoplasm. Aconitase, in its active form, contains a 4Fe-4S iron-sulfur cluster; three cysteine residues have been shown to be ligands of the 4Fe-4S cluster. This is the Aconitase core domain, including structural domains 1, 2 and 3, which binds the Fe-S cluster. The aconitase family also contains the following proteins: - Iron-responsive element binding protein (IRE-BP), a cytosolic protein that binds to iron-responsive elements (IREs). IREs are stem-loop structures found in the 5'UTR of ferritin, and delta aminolevulinic acid synthase mRNAs, and in the 3'UTR of transferrin receptor mRNA. IRE-BP also express aconitase activity. - 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase (isopropylmalate isomerase), the enzyme that catalyzes the second step in the biosynthesis of leucine. - Homoaconitase (homoaconitate hydratase), an enzyme that participates in the alpha-aminoadipate pathway of lysine biosynthesis and that converts cis-homoaconitate into homoisocitric acid.
153139ACTcd02116ACT domains are commonly involved in specifically binding an amino acid or other small ligand leading to regulation of the enzyme. Members of this CD belong to the superfamily of ACT regulatory domains. Pairs of ACT domains are commonly involved in specifically binding an amino acid or other small ligand leading to regulation of the enzyme. The ACT domain has been detected in a number of diverse proteins; some of these proteins are involved in amino acid and purine biosynthesis, phenylalanine hydroxylation, regulation of bacterial metabolism and transcription, and many remain to be characterized. ACT domain-containing enzymes involved in amino acid and purine synthesis are in many cases allosteric enzymes with complex regulation enforced by the binding of ligands. The ACT domain is commonly involved in the binding of a small regulatory molecule, such as the amino acids L-Ser and L-Phe in the case of D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and the bifunctional chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydratase enzyme (P-protein), respectively. Aspartokinases typically consist of two C-terminal ACT domains in a tandem repeat, but the second ACT domain is inserted within the first, resulting in, what is normally the terminal beta strand of ACT2, formed from a region N-terminal of ACT1. ACT domain repeats have been shown to have nonequivalent ligand-binding sites with complex regulatory patterns such as those seen in the bifunctional enzyme, aspartokinase-homoserine dehydrogenase (ThrA). In other enzymes, such as phenylalanine hydroxylases, the ACT domain appears to function as a flexible small module providing allosteric regulation via transmission of conformational changes, these conformational changes are not necessarily initiated by regulatory ligand binding at the ACT domain itself. ACT domains are present either singularly, N- or C-terminal, or in pairs present C-terminal or between two catalytic domains. Unique to cyanobacteria are four ACT domains C-terminal to an aspartokinase domain. A few proteins are composed almost entirely of ACT domain repeats as seen in the four ACT domain protein, the ACR protein, found in higher plants; and the two ACT domain protein, the glycine cleavage system transcriptional repressor (GcvR) protein, found in some bacteria. Also seen are single ACT domain proteins similar to the Streptococcus pneumoniae ACT domain protein (uncharacterized pdb structure 1ZPV) found in both bacteria and archaea. Purportedly, the ACT domain is an evolutionarily mobile ligand binding regulatory module that has been fused to different enzymes at various times.
190133ACTpfam01842ACT domain. This family of domains generally have a regulatory role. ACT domains are linked to a wide range of metabolic enzymes that are regulated by amino acid concentration. Pairs of ACT domains bind specifically to a particular amino acid leading to regulation of the linked enzyme. The ACT domain is found in: D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase EC:1.1.1.95, which is inhibited by serine. Aspartokinase EC:2.7.2.4, which is regulated by lysine. Acetolactate synthase small regulatory subunit, which is inhibited by valine. Phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase EC:1.14.16.1, which is regulated by phenylalanine. Prephenate dehydrogenase EC:4.2.1.51. formyltetrahydrofolate deformylase EC:3.5.1.10, which is activated by methionine and inhibited by glycine. GTP pyrophosphokinase EC:2.7.6.5
153152ACT_AAAH-PDT-likecd04880ACT domain of the nonheme iron-dependent, aromatic amino acid hydroxylases (AAAH). ACT domain of the nonheme iron-dependent, aromatic amino acid hydroxylases (AAAH): Phenylalanine hydroxylases (PAH), tyrosine hydroxylases (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylases (TPH), both peripheral (TPH1) and neuronal (TPH2) enzymes. This family of enzymes shares a common catalytic mechanism, in which dioxygen is used by an active site containing a single, reduced iron atom to hydroxylate an unactivated aromatic substrate, concomitant with a two-electron oxidation of tetrahydropterin (BH4) cofactor to its quinonoid dihydropterin form. Eukaryotic AAAHs have an N-terminal ACT (regulatory) domain, a middle catalytic domain and a C-terminal domain which is responsible for the oligomeric state of the enzyme forming a domain-swapped tetrameric coiled-coil. The PAH, TH, and TPH enzymes contain highly conserved catalytic domains but distinct N-terminal ACT domains and differ in their mechanisms of regulation. One commonality is that all three eukaryotic enzymes appear to be regulated, in part, by the phosphorylation of serine residues N-terminal of the ACT domain. Also included in this CD are the C-terminal ACT domains of the bifunctional chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydratase (CM-PDT) enzyme and the prephenate dehydratase (PDT) enzyme found in plants, fungi, bacteria, and archaea. The P-protein of Escherichia coli (CM-PDT) catalyzes the conversion of chorismate to prephenate and then the decarboxylation and dehydration to form phenylpyruvate. These are the first two steps in the biosynthesis of L-Phe and L-Tyr via the shikimate pathway in microorganisms and plants. The E. coli P-protein (CM-PDT) has three domains with an N-terminal domain with chorismate mutase activity, a middle domain with prephenate dehydratase activity, and an ACT regulatory C-terminal domain. The prephenate dehydratase enzyme has a PDT and ACT domain. The ACT domain is essential to bring about the negative allosteric regulation by L-Phe binding. L-Phe binds with positive cooperativity; with this binding, there is a shift in the protein to less active tetrameric and higher oligomeric forms from a more active dimeric form. Members of this CD belong to the superfamily of ACT regulatory domains.
238800ADCL_likecd01559ADCL_like: 4-Amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase: is a member of the fold-type IV of PLP dependent enzymes that converts 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate (ADC) to p-aminobenzoate and pyruvate. Based on the information available from the crystal structure, most members of this subgroup are likely to function as dimers. The enzyme from E.Coli, the structure of which is available, is a homodimer that is folded into a small and a larger domain. The coenzyme pyridoxal 5; -phosphate resides at the interface of the two domains that is linked by a flexible loop. Members of this subgroup are found in Eukaryotes and bacteria.
238839aeEF2_snRNP_like_IVcd01681This family represents domain IV of archaeal and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (aeEF-2) and of an evolutionarily conserved U5 snRNP-specific protein. U5 snRNP is a GTP-binding factor closely related to the ribosomal translocase EF-2. In complex with GTP, EF-2 promotes the translocation step of translation. During translocation the peptidyl-tRNA is moved from the A site to the P site of the small subunit of ribosome and the mRNA is shifted one codon relative to the ribosome. It has been shown that EF-2_IV domain mimics the shape of anticodon arm of the tRNA in the structurally homologous ternary complex of Phe-tRNA, EF-1 (another transcriptional elongation factor) and GTP analog. The tip portion of this domain is found in a position that overlaps the anticodon arm of the A-site tRNA, implying that EF-2 displaces the A-site tRNA to the P-site by physical interaction with the anticodon arm.
219798AHSA1pfam08327Activator of Hsp90 ATPase homolog 1-like protein. This family includes eukaryotic, prokaryotic and archaeal proteins that bear similarity to a C-terminal region of human activator of 90 kDa heat shock protein ATPase homolog 1 (AHSA1/p38). This protein is known to interact with the middle domain of Hsp90, and stimulate its ATPase activity. It is probably a general upregulator of Hsp90 function, particularly contributing to its efficiency in conditions of increased stress. p38 is also known to interact with the cytoplasmic domain of the VSV G protein, and may thus be involved in protein transport. It has also been reported as being underexpressed in Down's syndrome. This region is found repeated in two members of this family.
220157Alpha-mann_midpfam09261Alpha mannosidase, middle domain. Members of this family adopt a structure consisting of three alpha helices, in an immunoglobulin/albumin-binding domain-like fold. They are predominantly found in the enzyme alpha-mannosidase.
214875Alpha-mann_midsmart00872Alpha mannosidase, middle domain. Members of this entry belong to the glycosyl hydrolase family 38, This domain, which is found in the central region adopts a structure consisting of three alpha helices, in an immunoglobulin/albumin-binding domain-like fold. The domain is predominantly found in the enzyme alpha-mannosidase.
239391alpha_CA_IV_XV_likecd03117Carbonic anhydrase alpha, CA_IV, CA_XV, like isozymes. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide in a two-step mechanism: a nucleophilic attack of a zinc-bound hydroxide ion on carbon dioxide, followed by the regeneration of the active site by ionization of the zinc-bound water molecule and removal of a proton from the active site. They are ubiquitous enzymes involved in fundamental processes like photosynthesis, respiration, pH homeostasis and ion transport. There are three evolutionary distinct groups - alpha, beta and gamma carbonic anhydrases - which show no significant sequence identity or structural similarity. Most alpha CAs are monomeric enzymes. The zinc ion is complexed by three histidine residues. This subgroup, restricted to animals, contains isozyme IV and similar proteins such as mouse CA XV. Isozymes IV is attached to membranes via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) tail. In mammals, Isozyme IV plays crucial roles in kidney and lung function, amongst others. This subgroup also contains the dual domain CA from the giant clam, Tridacna gigas. T. gigas CA plays a role in the movement of inorganic carbon from the surrounding seawater to the symbiotic algae found in the clam's tissues. CA XV is expressed in several species but not in humans or chimps. Similar to isozyme CA IV, CA XV attaches to membranes via a GPI tail.
215829Aminotran_5pfam00266Aminotransferase class-V. This domain is found in amino transferases, and other enzymes including cysteine desulphurase EC:4.4.1.-.
218238AMPKBIpfam047395'-AMP-activated protein kinase beta subunit, interation domain. This region is found in the beta subunit of the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase complex, and its yeast homologues Sip1, Sip2 and Gal83, which are found in the SNF1 kinase complex. This region is sufficient for interaction of this subunit with the kinase complex, but is not solely responsible for the interaction, and the interaction partner is not known. The isoamylase N-terminal domain (pfam02922) is sometimes found in proteins belonging to this family.
153408Anticodon_Ia_likecd07375Anticodon-binding domain of class Ia aminoacyl tRNA synthetases and similar domains. This domain is found in a variety of class Ia aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, C-terminal to the catalytic core domain. It recognizes and specifically binds to the anticodon of the tRNA. Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases catalyze the transfer of cognate amino acids to the 3'-end of their tRNAs by specifically recognizing cognate from non-cognate amino acids. Members include valyl-, leucyl-, isoleucyl-, cysteinyl-, arginyl-, and methionyl-tRNA synthethases. This superfamily also includes a domain from MshC, an enzyme in the mycothiol biosynthetic pathway.
153079arginine_kinase_likecd07932Phosphagen (guanidino) kinases such as arginine kinase and similar enzymes. Eukaryotic arginine kinase-like phosphagen (guanidino) kinases are enzymes that transphosphorylate a high energy phosphoguanidino compound, like phosphoarginine in the case of arginine kinase (AK), which is used as an energy-storage and -transport metabolite, to ADP, thereby creating ATP. The substrate binding site is located in the cleft between the N and C-terminal domains, but most of the catalytic residues are found in the larger C-terminal domain. Besides AK, one of the most studied members of this family, this model also represents a phosphagen kinase with different substrate specificity, hypotaurocyamine kinase (HTK).
185675ArgRS_corecd00671catalytic core domain of arginyl-tRNA synthetases. Arginyl tRNA synthetase (ArgRS) catalytic core domain. This class I enzyme is a monomer which aminoacylates the 2'-OH of the nucleotide at the 3' of the appropriate tRNA. The core domain is based on the Rossman fold and is responsible for the ATP-dependent formation of the enzyme bound aminoacyl-adenylate. There are at least three subgroups of ArgRS. One type contains both characteristic class I HIGH and KMSKS motifs, which are involved in ATP binding. The second subtype lacks the KMSKS motif; however, it has a lysine N-terminal to the HIGH motif, which serves as the functional counterpart to the second lysine of the KMSKS motif. A third group, which is found primarily in archaea and a few bacteria, lacks both the KMSKS motif and the HIGH loop lysine.
238400AspRS_corecd00777Asp tRNA synthetase (aspRS) class II core domain. Class II assignment is based upon its structure and the presence of three characteristic sequence motifs. AspRS is a homodimer, which attaches a specific amino acid to the 3' OH group of ribose of the appropriate tRNA. The catalytic core domain is primarily responsible for the ATP-dependent formation of the enzyme bound aminoacyl-adenylate. AspRS in this family differ from those found in the AsxRS family by a GAD insert in the core domain.
201773Astacinpfam01400Astacin (Peptidase family M12A). The members of this family are enzymes that cleave peptides. These proteases require zinc for catalysis. Members of this family contain two conserved disulphide bridges, these are joined 1-4 and 2-3. Members of this family have an amino terminal propeptide which is cleaved to give the active protease domain. All other linked domains are found to the carboxyl terminus of this domain. This family includes: Astacin, a digestive enzyme from Crayfish. Meprin, a multiple domain membrane component that is constructed from a homologous alpha and beta chain. Proteins involved in morphogenesis such as human bone morphogenetic protein 1, and Tolloid from Drosophila melanogaster.
216895A_deaminpfam02137Adenosine-deaminase (editase) domain. Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) can deaminate adenosine to form inosine. In long double-stranded RNA, this process is non-specific; it occurs site-specifically in RNA transcripts. The former is important in defence against viruses, whereas the latter may affect splicing or untranslated regions. They are primarily nuclear proteins, but a longer isoform of ADAR1 is found predominantly in the cytoplasm. ADARs are derived from the Tad1-like tRNA deaminases that are present across eukaryotes. These in turn belong to the nucleotide/nucleic acid deaminase superfamily and are characterized by a distinct insert between the two conserved cysteines that are involved in binding zinc.
219848A_deaminase_Npfam08451Adenosine/AMP deaminase N-terminal. This domain is found to the N-terminus of the Adenosine/AMP deaminase domain (pfam00962) in metazoan proteins such as the Cat eye syndrome critical region protein 1 and its homologues.
239016B12-binding_likecd02065B12 binding domain (B12-BD). Most of the members bind different cobalamid derivates, like B12 (adenosylcobamide) or methylcobalamin or methyl-Co(III) 5-hydroxybenzimidazolylcobamide. This domain is found in several enzymes, such as glutamate mutase, methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Cobalamin undergoes a conformational change on binding the protein; the dimethylbenzimidazole group, which is coordinated to the cobalt in the free cofactor, moves away from the corrin and is replaced by a histidine contributed by the protein. The sequence Asp-X-His-X-X-Gly, which contains this histidine ligand, is conserved in many cobalamin-binding proteins. Not all members of this family contain the conserved binding motif.
153077bacterial_phosphagencd07930Phosphagen (guanidino) kinases found in bacteria. Phosphagen (guanidino) kinases are enzymes that transphosphorylate a high energy phosphoguanidino compound, such as phosphocreatine (PCr) or phosphoarginine, which is used as an energy-storage and -transport metabolite, to ADP, thereby creating ATP. This subfamily is specific to bacteria and lacks an N-terminal domain, which otherwise forms part of the substrate binding site. Most of the catalytic residues are found in the larger C-terminal domain, however, which appears conserved in these bacterial proteins. Their functions have not been characterized.
240063BAH_DCM_Icd04712BAH, or Bromo Adjacent Homology domain, as present in DNA (Cytosine-5)-methyltransferases (DCM) 1. DNA methylation, or the covalent addition of a methyl group to cytosine within the context of the CpG dinucleotide, has profound effects on the genome. These effects include transcriptional repression via inhibition of transcription factor binding, the recruitment of methyl-binding proteins and their associated chromatin remodeling factors, X chromosome inactivation, imprinting, and the suppression of parasitic DNA sequences. DNA methylation is also essential for proper embryonic development and is an important player in both DNA repair and genome stability. BAH domains are found in a variety of proteins playing roles in transcriptional silencing and the remodeling of chromatin. It is assumed that in most or all of these instances the BAH domain mediates protein-protein interactions.
240107BAH_Dnmt1_Icd04760BAH, or Bromo Adjacent Homology domain, first copy present in DNA (Cytosine-5)-methyltransferases from Bilateria, Dnmt1 and similar proteins. DNA methylation, or the covalent addition of a methyl group to cytosine within the context of the CpG dinucleotide, has profound effects on the genome. These effects include transcriptional repression via inhibition of transcription factor binding, the recruitment of methyl-binding proteins and their associated chromatin remodeling factors, X chromosome inactivation, imprinting, and the suppression of parasitic DNA sequences. DNA methylation is also essential for proper embryonic development and is an important player in both DNA repair and genome stability. BAH domains are found in a variety of proteins playing roles in transcriptional silencing and the remodeling of chromatin. It is assumed that in most or all of these instances the BAH domain mediates protein-protein interactions.
240062BAH_Dnmt1_IIcd04711BAH, or Bromo Adjacent Homology domain, second copy present in DNA (Cytosine-5)-methyltransferases from Bilateria, Dnmt1 and similar proteins. DNA methylation, or the covalent addition of a methyl group to cytosine within the context of the CpG dinucleotide, has profound effects on the genome. These effects include transcriptional repression via inhibition of transcription factor binding, the recruitment of methyl-binding proteins and their associated chromatin remodeling factors, X chromosome inactivation, imprinting, and the suppression of parasitic DNA sequences. DNA methylation is also essential for proper embryonic development and is an important player in both DNA repair and genome stability. BAH domains are found in a variety of proteins playing roles in transcriptional silencing and the remodeling of chromatin. It is assumed that in most or all of these instances the BAH domain mediates protein-protein interactions.
240070BAH_Orc1p_animalcd04719BAH, or Bromo Adjacent Homology domain, as present in animal homologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Orc1p. Orc1 is part of the Yeast Sir1-origin recognition complex. The Orc1p BAH doman functions in epigenetic silencing. In vertebrates, a similar ORC protein complex exists, which has been shown essential for DNA replication in Xenopus laevis. BAH domains are found in a variety of proteins playing roles in transcriptional silencing and the remodeling of chromatin. It is assumed that in most or all of these instances the BAH domain mediates protein-protein interactions.
240059BAH_plantDCM_IIcd04708BAH, or Bromo Adjacent Homology domain, second copy present in DNA (Cytosine-5)-methyltransferases (DCM) from plants. DNA methylation, or the covalent addition of a methyl group to cytosine within the context of the CpG dinucleotide, has profound effects on the genome. These effects include transcriptional repression via inhibition of transcription factor binding, the recruitment of methyl-binding proteins and their associated chromatin remodeling factors, X chromosome inactivation, imprinting, and the suppression of parasitic DNA sequences. DNA methylation is also essential for proper embryonic development and is an important player in both DNA repair and genome stability. BAH domains are found in a variety of proteins playing roles in transcriptional silencing and the remodeling of chromatin. It is assumed that in most or all of these instances the BAH domain mediates protein-protein interactions.
240064BAH_plant_3cd04713BAH, or Bromo Adjacent Homology domain, plant-specific sub-family with unknown function. BAH domains are found in a variety of proteins playing roles in transcriptional silencing and the remodeling of chromatin. It is assumed that in most or all of these instances the BAH domain mediates protein-protein interactions.
241280BAR-PH_GRAF_familycd01249GTPase Regulator Associated with Focal adhesion and related proteins Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. This hierarchy contains GRAF family members: OPHN1/oligophrenin1, GRAF1 (also called ARHGAP26/Rho GTPase activating protein 26), GRAF2 (also called ARHGAP10/ARHGAP42), AK057372, and LOC129897, all of which are members of the APPL family. OPHN1 is a RhoGAP involved in X-linked mental retardation, epilepsy, rostral ventricular enlargement, and cerebellar hypoplasia. Affected individuals have morphological abnormalities of their brain with enlargement of the cerebral ventricles and cerebellar hypoplasia. OPHN1 negatively regulates RhoA, Cdc42, and Rac1 in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. GRAF1 sculpts the endocytic membranes of the CLIC/GEEC (clathrin-independent carriers/GPI-enriched early endosomal compartments) endocytic pathway. It strongly interacts with dynamin and inhibition of dynamin abolishes CLIC/GEEC endocytosis. GRAF2, GRAF3 and oligophrenin are likely to play similar roles during clathrin-independent endocytic events. GRAF1 mutations are linked to leukaemia. All members are composed of a N-terminal BAR-PH domain, followed by a RhoGAP domain, a proline rich region, and a C-terminal SH3 domain. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
221602BCAS3pfam12490Breast carcinoma amplified sequence 3. This domain family is found in eukaryotes, and is typically between 229 and 245 amino acids in length. The proteins in this family have been shown to be proto-oncogenes implicated in the development of breast cancer.
216045BIRpfam00653Inhibitor of Apoptosis domain. BIR stands for 'Baculovirus Inhibitor of apoptosis protein Repeat'. It is found repeated in inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), and in fact it is also known as IAP repeat. These domains characteristically have a number of invariant residues, including 3 conserved cysteines and one conserved histidine that coordinate a zinc ion. They are usually made up of 4-5 alpha helices and a three-stranded beta-sheet. BIR is also found in other proteins known as BIR-domain-containing proteins (BIRPs), such as Survivin.
211357BLMA_likecd08349Bleomycin binding protein (BLMA) and similar proteins; BLMA confers bleomycin (Bm) resistance by directly binding to Bm. BLMA also called Bleomycin resistance protein, confers Bm resistance by directly binding to Bm. Bm is a glycopeptide antibiotic produced naturally by actinomycetes. It is a potent anti-cancer drug, which acts as a strong DNA-cutting agent, thereby causing cell death. BLMA is produced by actinomycetes to protect themselves against their own lethal compound. BLMA has two identically-folded subdomains, with the same alpha/beta fold; these two halves have no sequence similarity. BLMAs are dimers and each dimer binds to two Bm molecules at the Bm-binding pockets formed at the dimer interface; two Bm molecules are bound per dimer. BLMA belongs to a conserved domain superfamily that is found in a variety of structurally related metalloproteins, including the bleomycin resistance protein, glyoxalase I, and type I ring-cleaving dioxygenases. As for the larger superfamily, this family contains members with or without domain swapping.
221603BNIP2pfam12496Bcl2-/adenovirus E1B nineteen kDa-interacting protein 2. This domain family is found in eukaryotes, and is typically between 119 and 133 amino acids in length. There is a conserved HGGY sequence motif. This family is Bcl2-/adenovirus E1B nineteen kDa-interacting protein 2. It interacts with pro- and anti- apoptotic molecules in the cell.
99900BR140_relatedcd05839The PWWP domain is found in the BR140 family, which includes peregrin and BR140-like proteins 1 and 2. BR140 is the only family to contain the PWWP domain at the C terminus, with PHD and bromo domains in the N-terminal region. In myeloid leukemias, BR140 is disrupted by chromosomal translocations, similar to translocations of WHSC1 in lymphoid multiple myeloma. The PWWP domain, named for a conserved Pro-Trp-Trp-Pro motif, is a small domain consisting of 100-150 amino acids. The PWWP domain is found in numerous proteins that are involved in cell division, growth and differentiation. Most PWWP-domain proteins seem to be nuclear, often DNA-binding proteins, that function as transcription factors regulating a variety of developmental processes.
215921Bromodomainpfam00439Bromodomain. Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains, that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine.
99957Bromo_AAAcd05528Bromodomain; sub-family co-occurring with AAA domains. Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains, that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine. The structure(2DKW) in this alignment is an uncharacterized protein predicted from analysis of cDNA clones from human fetal liver
99936Bromo_Acf1_likecd05504Bromodomain; Acf1_like or BAZ1A_like subfamily. Bromo adjacent to zinc finger 1A (BAZ1A) was identified as a novel human bromodomain gene by cDNA library screening. The Drosophila homologue, Acf1, is part of the CHRAC (chromatin accessibility complex) and regulates ISWI-induced nucleosome remodeling. Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains, that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine.
99955Bromo_ASH1cd05525Bromodomain; ASH1_like sub-family. ASH1 (absent, small, or homeotic 1) is a member of the trithorax-group in Drosophila melanogaster, an epigenetic transcriptional regulator of HOX genes. Drosophila ASH1 has been shown to methylate specific lysines in histones H3 and H4. Mammalian ASH1 has been shown to methylate histone H3. Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains, that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine.
99935Bromo_BAZ2A_B_likecd05503Bromodomain, BAZ2A/BAZ2B_like subfamily. Bromo adjacent to zinc finger 2A (BAZ2A) and 2B (BAZ2B) were identified as a novel human bromodomain gene by cDNA library screening. BAZ2A is also known as Tip5 (Transcription termination factor I-interacting protein 5) and hWALp3. The proteins may play roles in transcriptional regulation. Human Tip5 is part of a complex termed NoRC (nucleolar remodeling complex), which induces nucleosome sliding and may play a role in the regulation of the rDNA locus. Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains, that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine.
99932Bromo_BDF1_2_Icd05500Bromodomain. BDF1/BDF2 like subfamily, restricted to fungi, repeat I. BDF1 and BDF2 are yeast transcription factors involved in the expression of a wide range of genes, including snRNAs; they are required for sporulation and DNA repair and protect histone H4 from deacetylation. Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains, that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine.
99931Bromo_BDF1_2_IIcd05499Bromodomain. BDF1/BDF2 like subfamily, restricted to fungi, repeat II. BDF1 and BDF2 are yeast transcription factors involved in the expression of a wide range of genes, including snRNAs; they are required for sporulation and DNA repair and protect histone H4 from deacetylation. Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains, that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine.
99944Bromo_brd1_likecd05512Bromodomain; brd1_like subfamily. BRD1 is a mammalian gene which encodes for a nuclear protein assumed to be a transcriptional regulator. BRD1 has been implicated with brain development and susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine.
99945Bromo_brd7_likecd05513Bromodomain, brd7_like subgroup. The BRD7 gene encodes a nuclear protein that has been shown to inhibit cell growth and the progression of the cell cycle by regulating cell-cycle genes at the transcriptional level. BRD7 has been identified as a gene involved in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The protein interacts with acetylated histone H3 via its bromodomain. Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine.
99939Bromo_brd8_likecd05507Bromodomain, brd8_like subgroup. In mammals, brd8 (bromodomain containing 8) interacts with the thyroid hormone receptor in a ligand-dependent fashion and enhances thyroid hormone-dependent activation from thyroid response elements. Brd8 is thought to be a nuclear receptor coactivator. Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains, that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine.
99930Bromo_Brdt_II_likecd05498Bromodomain, Brdt_like subfamily, repeat II. Human Brdt is a testis-specific member of the BET subfamily of bromodomain proteins; the first bromodomain in Brdt has been shown to be essential for male germ cell differentiation. Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains, that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine.
99929Bromo_Brdt_I_likecd05497Bromodomain, Brdt_like subfamily, repeat I. Human Brdt is a testis-specific member of the BET subfamily of bromodomain proteins; the first bromodomain in Brdt has been shown to be essential for male germ cell differentiation. Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains, that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine.
99927Bromo_cbp_likecd05495Bromodomain, cbp_like subfamily. Cbp (CREB binding protein or CREBBP) is an acetyltransferase acting on histone, which gives a specific tag for transcriptional activation and also acetylates non-histone proteins. CREBBP binds specifically to phosphorylated CREB protein and augments the activity of phosphorylated CREB to activate transcription of cAMP-responsive genes. Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains, that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine.
99941Bromo_gcn5_likecd05509Bromodomain; Gcn5_like subfamily. Gcn5p is a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) which mediates acetylation of histones at lysine residues; such acetylation is generally correlated with the activation of transcription. Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains, that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine.
99938Bromo_plant1cd05506Bromodomain, uncharacterized subfamily specific to plants. Might function as a global transcription factor. Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains, that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine.
99954Bromo_polybromo_Icd05524Bromodomain, polybromo repeat I. Polybromo is a nuclear protein of unknown function, which contains 6 bromodomains. The human ortholog BAF180 is part of a SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex, and it may carry out the functions of Yeast Rsc-1 and Rsc-2. It was shown that polybromo bromodomains bind to histone H3 at specific acetyl-lysine positions. Bromodomains are found in many chromatin-associated proteins and in nuclear histone acetyltransferases. They interact specifically with acetylated lysine, but not all the bromodomains in polybromo may bind to acetyl-lysine.
99948Bromo_polybromo_IIcd05517Bromodomain, polybromo repeat II. Polybromo is a nuclear protein of unknown function, which contains 6 bromodomains. The human ortholog BAF180 is part of a SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex, and it may carry out the functions of Yeast Rsc-1 and Rsc-2. It was shown that polybromo bromodomains bind to histone H3 at specific acetyl-lysine positions. Bromodomains are found in many chromatin-associated proteins and in nuclear histone acetyltransferases. They interact specifically with acetylated lysine, but not all the bromodomains in polybromo may bind to acetyl-lysine.
99951Bromo_polybromo_IIIcd05520Bromodomain, polybromo repeat III. Polybromo is a nuclear protein of unknown function, which contains 6 bromodomains. The human ortholog BAF180 is part of a SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex, and it may carry out the functions of Yeast Rsc-1 and Rsc-2. It was shown that polybromo bromodomains bind to histone H3 at specific acetyl-lysine positions. Bromodomains are found in many chromatin-associated proteins and in nuclear histone acetyltransferases. They interact specifically with acetylated lysine, but not all the bromodomains in polybromo may bind to acetyl-lysine.
99949Bromo_polybromo_IVcd05518Bromodomain, polybromo repeat IV. Polybromo is a nuclear protein of unknown function, which contains 6 bromodomains. The human ortholog BAF180 is part of a SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex, and it may carry out the functions of Yeast Rsc-1 and Rsc-2. It was shown that polybromo bromodomains bind to histone H3 at specific acetyl-lysine positions. Bromodomains are found in many chromatin-associated proteins and in nuclear histone acetyltransferases. They interact specifically with acetylated lysine, but not all the bromodomains in polybromo may bind to acetyl-lysine.
99946Bromo_polybromo_Vcd05515Bromodomain, polybromo repeat V. Polybromo is a nuclear protein of unknown function, which contains 6 bromodomains. The human ortholog BAF180 is part of a SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex, and it may carry out the functions of Yeast Rsc-1 and Rsc-2. It was shown that polybromo bromodomains bind to histone H3 at specific acetyl-lysine positions. Bromodomains are found in many chromatin-associated proteins and in nuclear histone acetyltransferases. They interact specifically with acetylated lysine, but not all the bromodomains in polybromo may bind to acetyl-lysine.
99956Bromo_polybromo_VIcd05526Bromodomain, polybromo repeat VI. Polybromo is a nuclear protein of unknown function, which contains 6 bromodomains. The human ortholog BAF180 is part of a SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex, and it may carry out the functions of Yeast Rsc-1 and Rsc-2. It was shown that polybromo bromodomains bind to histone H3 at specific acetyl-lysine positions. Bromodomains are found in many chromatin-associated proteins and in nuclear histone acetyltransferases. They interact specifically with acetylated lysine, but not all the bromodomains in polybromo may bind to acetyl-lysine.
99940Bromo_RACK7cd05508Bromodomain, RACK7_like subfamily. RACK7 (also called human protein kinase C-binding protein) was identified as a potential tumor suppressor genes, it shares domain architecture with BS69/ZMYND11; both have been implicated in the regulation of cellular proliferation. Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains, that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine.
99952Bromo_Rsc1_2_Icd05521Bromodomain, repeat I in Rsc1/2_like subfamily, specific to fungi. Rsc1 and Rsc2 are components of the RSC complex (remodeling the structure of chromatin), are essential for transcriptional control, and have a specific domain architecture including two bromodomains. The RSC complex has also been linked to homologous recombination and nonhomologous end-joining repair of DNA double strand breaks. Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains, that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine.
99953Bromo_Rsc1_2_IIcd05522Bromodomain, repeat II in Rsc1/2_like subfamily, specific to fungi. Rsc1 and Rsc2 are components of the RSC complex (remodeling the structure of chromatin), are essential for transcriptional control, and have a specific domain architecture including two bromodomains. The RSC complex has also been linked to homologous recombination and nonhomologous end-joining repair of DNA double strand breaks. Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains, that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine.
99950Bromo_SNF2cd05519Bromodomain, SNF2-like subfamily, specific to fungi. SNF2 is a yeast protein involved in transcriptional activation, it is the catalytic component of the SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex. The protein is essential for the regulation of gene expression (both positive and negative) of a large number of genes. The SWI/SNF complex changes chromatin structure by altering DNA-histone contacts within the nucleosome, which results in a re-positioning of the nucleosome and facilitates or represses the binding of gene-specific transcription factors. Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains, that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine.
99947Bromo_SNF2L2cd05516Bromodomain, SNF2L2-like subfamily, specific to animals. SNF2L2 (SNF2-alpha) or SWI/SNF-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily A member 2 is a global transcriptional activator, which cooperates with nuclear hormone receptors to boost transcriptional activation. Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains, that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine.
99933Bromo_SP100C_likecd05501Bromodomain, SP100C_like subfamily. The SP100C protein is a splice variant of SP100, a major component of PML-SP100 nuclear bodies (NBs), which are poorly understood. It is covalently modified by SUMO-1 and may play a role in processes at the chromatin level. Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains, that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine.
99942Bromo_SPT7_likecd05510Bromodomain; SPT7_like subfamily. SPT7 is a yeast protein that functions as a component of the transcription regulatory histone acetylation (HAT) complexes SAGA, SALSA, and SLIK. SAGA is involved in the RNA polymerase II-dependent transcriptional regulation of about 10% of all yeast genes. The SPT7 bromodomain has been shown to weakly interact with acetylated histone H3, but not H4. The human representative of this subfamily is cat eye syndrome critical region protein 2 (CECR2). Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains, that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine.
99943Bromo_TFIIDcd05511Bromodomain, TFIID-like subfamily. Human TAFII250 (or TAF250) is the largest subunit of TFIID, a large multi-domain complex, which initiates the assembly of the transcription machinery. TAFII250 contains two bromodomains that specifically bind to acetylated histone H4. Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains, that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine.
99934Bromo_tif1_likecd05502Bromodomain; tif1_like subfamily. Tif1 (transcription intermediary factor 1) is a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family, which is characterized by a particular domain architecture. It functions by recruiting coactivators and/or corepressors to modulate transcription. Vertebrate Tif1-gamma, also labeled E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase TRIM33, plays a role in the control of hematopoiesis. Its homologue in Xenopus laevis, Ectodermin, has been shown to function in germ-layer specification and control of cell growth during embryogenesis. Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains, that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine.
99928Bromo_WDR9_IIcd05496Bromodomain; WDR9 repeat II_like subfamily. WDR9 is a human gene located in the Down Syndrome critical region-2 of chromosome 21. It encodes for a nuclear protein containing WD40 repeats and two bromodomains, which may function as a transcriptional regulator involved in chromatin remodeling and play a role in embryonic development. Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains, that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine.
99958Bromo_WDR9_I_likecd05529Bromodomain; WDR9 repeat I_like subfamily. WDR9 is a human gene located in the Down Syndrome critical region-2 of chromosome 21. It encodes for a nuclear protein containing WD40 repeats and two bromodomains, which may function as a transcriptional regulator involved in chromatin remodeling and play a role in embryonic development. Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains, that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine.
99937Bromo_WSTF_likecd05505Bromodomain; Williams syndrome transcription factor-like subfamily (WSTF-like). The Williams-Beuren syndrome deletion transcript 9 is a putative transcriptional regulator. WSTF was found to play a role in vitamin D-mediated transcription as part of two chromatin remodeling complexes, WINAC and WICH. Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains, that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine.
99924Bromo_ZMYND11cd05492Bromodomain; ZMYND11_like sub-family. ZMYND11 or BS69 is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein that has been shown to associate with chromatin. It interacts with chromatin remodeling factors and might play a role in chromatin remodeling and gene expression. Bromodomains are 110 amino acid long domains, that are found in many chromatin associated proteins. Bromodomains can interact specifically with acetylated lysine.
99902BS69_relatedcd05841The PWWP domain is part of BS69 protein, a nuclear protein that specifically binds adenoviral E1A and Epstein-Barr viral EBNA2 proteins, suppressing their transactivation functions. BS69 is a multi-domain protein, containing bromo, PHD, PWWP, and MYND domains. The specific role of the PWWP domain within BS69 is not clearly identified, but BS69 functions in chromatin remodeling, consistent with other PWWP-containing proteins. The PWWP domain, named for a conserved Pro-Trp-Trp-Pro motif, is a small domain consisting of 100-150 amino acids. The PWWP domain is found in numerous proteins that are involved in cell division, growth and differentiation. Most PWWP-domain proteins seem to be nuclear, often DNA-binding, proteins that function as transcription factors regulating a variety of developmental processes.
197585BTBsmart00225Broad-Complex, Tramtrack and Bric a brac. Domain in Broad-Complex, Tramtrack and Bric a brac. Also known as POZ (poxvirus and zinc finger) domain. Known to be a protein-protein interaction motif found at the N-termini of several C2H2-type transcription factors as well as Shaw-type potassium channels. Known structure reveals a tightly intertwined dimer formed via interactions between N-terminal strand and helix structures. However in a subset of BTB/POZ domains, these two secondary structures appear to be missing. Be aware SMART predicts BTB/POZ domains without the beta1- and alpha1-secondary structures.
176036C2A_Synaptotagmin-15cd08390C2A domain first repeat present in Synaptotagmins 15 and 17. Synaptotagmin is a membrane-trafficking protein characterized by a N-terminal transmembrane region, a linker, and 2 C-terminal C2 domains. It is thought to be involved in the trafficking and exocytosis of secretory vesicles in non-neuronal tissues and is Ca2+ independent. Human synaptotagmin 15 has 2 alternatively spliced forms that encode proteins with different C-termini. The larger, SYT15a, contains a N-terminal TM region, a putative fatty-acylation site, and 2 tandem C terminal C2 domains. The smaller, SYT15b, lacks the C-terminal portion of the second C2 domain. Unlike most other synaptotagmins it is nearly absent in the brain and rather is found in the heart, lungs, skeletal muscle, and testis. Synaptotagmin 17 is located in the brain, kidney, and prostate and is thought to be a peripheral membrane protein. Previously all synaptotagmins were thought to be calcium sensors in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and hormone secretion, but it has been shown that not all of them bind calcium. Of the 17 identified synaptotagmins only 8 bind calcium (1-3, 5-7, 9, 10). The function of the two C2 domains that bind calcium are: regulating the fusion step of synaptic vesicle exocytosis (C2A) and binding to phosphatidyl-inositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3) in the absence of calcium ions and to phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) in their presence (C2B). C2B also regulates also the recycling step of synaptic vesicles. C2 domains fold into an 8-standed beta-sandwich that can adopt 2 structural arrangements: Type I and Type II, distinguished by a circular permutation involving their N- and C-terminal beta strands. Many C2 domains are Ca2+-dependent membrane-targeting modules that bind a wide variety of substances including bind phospholipids, inositol polyphosphates, and intracellular proteins. Most C2 domain proteins are either signal transduction enzymes that contain a single C2 domain, such as protein kinase C, or membrane trafficking proteins which contain at least two C2 domains, such as synaptotagmin 1. However, there are a few exceptions to this including RIM isoforms and some splice variants of piccolo/aczonin and intersectin which only have a single C2 domain. C2 domains with a calcium binding region have negatively charged residues, primarily aspartates, that serve as ligands for calcium ions. This cd contains the first C2 repeat, C2A, and has a type-I topology.
176054C2B_Synaptotagmin-15cd08409C2 domain second repeat present in Synaptotagmin 15. Synaptotagmin is a membrane-trafficking protein characterized by a N-terminal transmembrane region, a linker, and 2 C-terminal C2 domains. It is thought to be involved in the trafficking and exocytosis of secretory vesicles in non-neuronal tissues and is Ca2+ independent. Human synaptotagmin 15 has 2 alternatively spliced forms that encode proteins with different C-termini. The larger, SYT15a, contains a N-terminal TM region, a putative fatty-acylation site, and 2 tandem C terminal C2 domains. The smaller, SYT15b, lacks the C-terminal portion of the second C2 domain. Unlike most other synaptotagmins it is nearly absent in the brain and rather is found in the heart, lungs, skeletal muscle, and testis. Previously all synaptotagmins were thought to be calcium sensors in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and hormone secretion, but it has been shown that not all of them bind calcium. Of the 17 identified synaptotagmins only 8 bind calcium (1-3, 5-7, 9, 10). The function of the two C2 domains that bind calcium are: regulating the fusion step of synaptic vesicle exocytosis (C2A) and binding to phosphatidyl-inositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3) in the absence of calcium ions and to phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) in their presence (C2B). C2B also regulates also the recycling step of synaptic vesicles. C2 domains fold into an 8-standed beta-sandwich that can adopt 2 structural arrangements: Type I and Type II, distinguished by a circular permutation involving their N- and C-terminal beta strands. Many C2 domains are Ca2+-dependent membrane-targeting modules that bind a wide variety of substances including bind phospholipids, inositol polyphosphates, and intracellular proteins. Most C2 domain proteins are either signal transduction enzymes that contain a single C2 domain, such as protein kinase C, or membrane trafficking proteins which contain at least two C2 domains, such as synaptotagmin 1. However, there are a few exceptions to this including RIM isoforms and some splice variants of piccolo/aczonin and intersectin which only have a single C2 domain. C2 domains with a calcium binding region have negatively charged residues, primarily aspartates, that serve as ligands for calcium ions. This cd contains the second C2 repeat, C2B, and has a type-I topology.
176068C2_ABRcd08686C2 domain in the Active BCR (Breakpoint cluster region) Related protein. The ABR protein is similar to the breakpoint cluster region protein. It has homology to guanine nucleotide exchange proteins and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). ABR is expressed primarily in the brain, but also includes non-neuronal tissues such as the heart. It has been associated with human diseases such as Miller-Dieker syndrome in which mental retardation and malformations of the heart are present. ABR contains a RhoGEF domain and a PH-like domain upstream of its C2 domain and a RhoGAP domain downstream of this domain. A few members also contain a Bcr-Abl oncoprotein oligomerization domain at the very N-terminal end. Splice variants of ABR have been identified. ABR is found in a wide variety of organisms including chimpanzee, dog, mouse, rat, fruit fly, and mosquito. The C2 domain was first identified in PKC. C2 domains fold into an 8-standed beta-sandwich that can adopt 2 structural arrangements: Type I and Type II, distinguished by a circular permutation involving their N- and C-terminal beta strands. Many C2 domains are Ca2+-dependent membrane-targeting modules that bind a wide variety of substances including bind phospholipids, inositol polyphosphates, and intracellular proteins. Most C2 domain proteins are either signal transduction enzymes that contain a single C2 domain, such as protein kinase C, or membrane trafficking proteins which contain at least two C2 domains, such as synaptotagmin 1. However, there are a few exceptions to this including RIM isoforms and some splice variants of piccolo/aczonin and intersectin which only have a single C2 domain. C2 domains with a calcium binding region have negatively charged residues, primarily aspartates, that serve as ligands for calcium ions.
176207CADcd08245Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CAD) and related proteins. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CAD), members of the medium chain dehydrogenase/reductase family, reduce cinnamaldehydes to cinnamyl alcohols in the last step of monolignal metabolism in plant cells walls. CAD binds 2 zinc ions and is NADPH- dependent. CAD family members are also found in non-plant species, e.g. in yeast where they have an aldehyde reductase activity. The medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, which contains the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn) and related proteins, is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. MDRs display a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P) binding-Rossmann fold domain of a beta-alpha form and an N-terminal catalytic domain with distant homology to GroES. The MDR group contains a host of activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes, or ketones. Active site zinc has a catalytic role, while structural zinc aids in stability. ADH-like proteins typically form dimers (typically higher plants, mammals) or tetramers (yeast, bacteria), and generally have 2 tightly bound zinc atoms per subunit. The active site zinc is coordinated by a histidine, two cysteines, and a water molecule. The second zinc seems to play a structural role, affects subunit interactions, and is typically coordinated by 4 cysteines.
176186CAD1cd05283Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CAD). Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CAD), members of the medium chain dehydrogenase/reductase family, reduce cinnamaldehydes to cinnamyl alcohols in the last step of monolignal metabolism in plant cells walls. CAD binds 2 zinc ions and is NADPH- dependent. CAD family members are also found in non-plant species, e.g. in yeast where they have an aldehyde reductase activity. The medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, which contains the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn) and related proteins, is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. MDRs display a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P) binding-Rossmann fold domain of a beta-alpha form and an N-terminal catalytic domain with distant homology to GroES. The MDR group contains a host of activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. Active site zinc has a catalytic role, while structural zinc aids in stability. ADH-like proteins typically form dimers (typically higher plants, mammals) or tetramers (yeast, bacteria), and generally have 2 tightly bound zinc atoms per subunit. The active site zinc is coordinated by a histidine, two cysteines, and a water molecule. The second zinc seems to play a structural role, affects subunit interactions, and is typically coordinated by 4 cysteines.
176258CAD2cd08298Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CAD). These alcohol dehydrogenases are related to the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CAD), members of the medium chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. NAD(P)(H)-dependent oxidoreductases are the major enzymes in the interconversion of alcohols and aldehydes, or ketones. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CAD) reduce cinnamaldehydes to cinnamyl alcohols in the last step of monolignal metabolism in plant cells walls. CAD binds 2 zinc ions and is NADPH- dependent. CAD family members are also found in non-plant species, e.g. in yeast where they have an aldehyde reductase activity. The medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, which contains the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn) and related proteins, is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. MDRs display a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P) binding-Rossmann fold domain of a beta-alpha form and an N-terminal catalytic domain with distant homology to GroES. The MDR group contains a host of activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. Active site zinc has a catalytic role, while structural zinc aids in stability. ADH-like proteins typically form dimers (typically higher plants, mammals) or tetramers (yeast, bacteria), and generally have 2 tightly bound zinc atoms per subunit. The active site zinc is coordinated by a histidine, two cysteines, and a water molecule. The second zinc seems to play a structural role, affects subunit interactions, and is typically coordinated by 4 cysteines.
176257CAD3cd08297Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CAD). These alcohol dehydrogenases are related to the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CAD), members of the medium chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. NAD(P)(H)-dependent oxidoreductases are the major enzymes in the interconversion of alcohols and aldehydes, or ketones. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CAD) reduce cinnamaldehydes to cinnamyl alcohols in the last step of monolignal metabolism in plant cells walls. CAD binds 2 zinc ions and is NADPH- dependent. CAD family members are also found in non-plant species, e.g. in yeast where they have an aldehyde reductase activity. The medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, which contains the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn) and related proteins, is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. MDRs display a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P) binding-Rossmann fold domain of a beta-alpha form and an N-terminal catalytic domain with distant homology to GroES. The MDR group contains a host of activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. Active site zinc has a catalytic role, while structural zinc aids in stability. ADH-like proteins typically form dimers (typically higher plants, mammals) or tetramers (yeast, bacteria), and generally have 2 tightly bound zinc atoms per subunit. The active site zinc is coordinated by a histidine, two cysteines, and a water molecule. The second zinc seems to play a structural role, affects subunit interactions, and is typically coordinated by 4 cysteines.
176256CAD_likecd08296Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CAD). Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CAD), members of the medium chain dehydrogenase/reductase family, reduce cinnamaldehydes to cinnamyl alcohols in the last step of monolignal metabolism in plant cells walls. CAD binds 2 zinc ions and is NADPH- dependent. CAD family members are also found in non-plant species, e.g. in yeast where they have an aldehyde reductase activity. The medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, which contains the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn) and related proteins, is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. MDRs display a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P) binding-Rossmann fold domain of a beta-alpha form and an N-terminal catalytic domain with distant homology to GroES. The MDR group contains a host of activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHs), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. Active site zinc has a catalytic role, while structural zinc aids in stability. ADH-like proteins typically form dimers (typically higher plants, mammals) or tetramers (yeast, bacteria), and generally have 2 tightly bound zinc atoms per subunit. The active site zinc is coordinated by a histidine, two cysteines, and a water molecule. The second zinc seems to play a structural role, affects subunit interactions, and is typically coordinated by 4 cysteines.
237999CAP_EDcd00038effector domain of the CAP family of transcription factors; members include CAP (or cAMP receptor protein (CRP)), which binds cAMP, FNR (fumarate and nitrate reduction), which uses an iron-sulfur cluster to sense oxygen) and CooA, a heme containing CO sensor. In all cases binding of the effector leads to conformational changes and the ability to activate transcription. Cyclic nucleotide-binding domain similar to CAP are also present in cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cAPK and cGPK) and vertebrate cyclic nucleotide-gated ion-channels. Cyclic nucleotide-monophosphate binding domain; proteins that bind cyclic nucleotides (cAMP or cGMP) share a structural domain of about 120 residues; the best studied is the prokaryotic catabolite gene activator, CAP, where such a domain is known to be composed of three alpha-helices and a distinctive eight-stranded, antiparallel beta-barrel structure; three conserved glycine residues are thought to be essential for maintenance of the structural integrity of the beta-barrel; CooA is a homodimeric transcription factor that belongs to CAP family; cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cAPK and cGPK) contain two tandem copies of the cyclic nucleotide-binding domain; cAPK's are composed of two different subunits, a catalytic chain and a regulatory chain, which contains both copies of the domain; cGPK's are single chain enzymes that include the two copies of the domain in their N-terminal section; also found in vertebrate cyclic nucleotide-gated ion-channels
176737CARD_APAF1cd08323Caspase activation and recruitment domain similar to that found in Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1. Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) similar to that found in apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 (APAF-1), which is an activator of caspase-9. APAF-1 contains WD-40 repeats, a CARD, and an ATPase domain. Upon stimulation, APAF-1, together with caspase-9, forms the heptameric 'apoptosome', which leads to the processing and activation of caspase-9, starting a caspase cascade which leads to apoptosis. In general, CARDs are death domains (DDs) found associated with caspases. They are known to be important in the signaling pathways for apoptosis, inflammation, and host-defense mechanisms. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and DED (Death Effector Domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176743CARD_ASC_NALP1cd08330Caspase activation and recruitment domain found in Human ASC, NALP1, and similar proteins. Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) similar to those found in human ASC (Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD) and NALP1 (CARD7, NLRP1). ASC, an adaptor molecule, and NALP1, a member of the Nod-like receptor (NLR) family, are involved in the assembly of the 'inflammasome', a multiprotein platform, which is responsible for caspase-1 activation and regulation of IL-1beta maturation. In general, CARDs are death domains (DDs) associated with caspases. They are known to be important in the signaling pathways for apoptosis, inflammation and host-defense mechanisms. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and DED (Death Effector Domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176788CARD_BCL10cd08810Caspase activation and recruitment domain of B-cell lymphoma 10. Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) similar to that found in BCL10 (B-cell lymphoma 10). BCL10 and Malt1 (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-lymphoma-translocation gene 1) are the integral components of CBM signalosomes. They associate with CARD9 to form M-CBM (CBM complex in myeloid immune cells) and with CARMA1 to form L-CBM (CBM complex in lymphoid immune cells), to mediate activation of NF-kB and MAPK by ITAM-coupled receptors expressed on immune cells. Both CARMA1 and CARD9 associate with BCL10 via a CARD-CARD interaction. In general, CARDs are death domains (DDs) found associated with caspases. They are known to be important in the signaling pathways for apoptosis, inflammation, and host-defense mechanisms. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and DED (Death Effector Domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176742CARD_BIRC2_BIRC3cd08329Caspase activation and recruitment domain found in Baculoviral IAP repeat-containing proteins, BIRC2 (c-IAP1) and BIRC3 (c-IAP2). Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) similar to those found in Baculoviral IAP repeat (BIR)-containing protein 2 (BIRC2) or cellular Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein 1 (c-IAP1), and BIRC3 (or c-IAP2). IAPs are anti-apoptotic proteins that contain at least one BIR domain. Most IAPs also contain a C-terminal RING domain. In addition, both BIRC2 and BIRC3 contain a CARD. BIRC2 and BIRC3, through their binding with TRAF (TNF receptor-associated factor) 2, are recruited to TNFR-1/2 signaling complexes, where they regulate caspase-8 activity. They also play important roles in pro-survival NF-kB signaling pathways. In general, CARDs are death domains (DDs) found associated with caspases. They are known to be important in the signaling pathways for apoptosis, inflammation and host-defense mechanisms. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and DED (Death Effector Domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176785CARD_CARD10_CARMA3cd08807Caspase activation and recruitment domain of CARD10-like proteins. Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) similar to that found in CARD10, also known as CARMA3 (caspase recruitment domain-containing membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein 3) or BIMP1. The CARMA3-BCL10-MALT1 signalosome plays a role in the GPCR-induced NF-kB activation. CARMA3 is more widely expressed than CARMA1, which is found only in hematopoietic cells. In endothelial and smooth muscle cells, CARMA3-mediated NF-kB activation induces pro-inflammatory signals within the vasculature and is a key factor in atherogenesis. In bronchial epithelial cells, CARMA3-mediated NF-kB signaling is important for the development of allergic airway inflammation. In general, CARDs are death domains (DDs) found associated with caspases. They are known to be important in the signaling pathways for apoptosis, inflammation, and host-defense mechanisms. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and DED (Death Effector Domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176786CARD_CARD11_CARMA1cd08808Caspase activation and recruitment domain of CARD11-like proteins. Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) similar to that found in CARD11, also known as caspase recruitment domain-containing membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein 1 (CARMA1). CARMA1, together with BCL10 (B-cell lymphoma 10) and Malt1 (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-lymphoma-translocation gene 1), form the L-CBM signalosome (CBM complex in lymphoid immune cells) which mediates activation of NF-kB and MAPK by ITAM-coupled receptors expressed on immune cells. CARMA1 associates with BCL10 via a CARD-CARD interaction. In general, CARDs are death domains (DDs) found associated with caspases. They are known to be important in the signaling pathways for apoptosis, inflammation, and host-defense mechanisms. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and DED (Death Effector Domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176784CARD_CARD14_CARMA2cd08806Caspase activation and recruitment domain of CARD14-like proteins. Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) similar to that found in CARD14, also known as BIMP2 or CARMA2 (caspase recruitment domain-containing membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein 2). CARD14 has been identified as a novel member of the MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase) family that functions as upstream activators of BCL10 (B-cell lymphoma 10) and NF-kB signaling. In general, CARDs are death domains (DDs) found associated with caspases. They are known to be important in the signaling pathways for apoptosis, inflammation, and host-defense mechanisms. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and DED (Death Effector Domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176787CARD_CARD9cd08809Caspase activation and recruitment domain of CARD9-like proteins. Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) similar to that found in CARD9. CARD9 is a central regulator of innate immunity and is highly expressed in dendritic cells and macrophages. Together with BCL10 (B-cell lymphoma 10) and Malt1 (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-lymphoma-translocation gene 1), it forms the M-CBM signalosome (the CBM complex in myeloid immune cells), which mediates activation of NF-kB and MAPK by ITAM-coupled receptors expressed on immune cells. CARD9 associates with BCL10 via a CARD-CARD interaction. In general, CARDs are death domains (DDs) found associated with caspases. They are known to be important in the signaling pathways for apoptosis, inflammation, and host-defense mechanisms. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and DED (Death Effector Domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176763CARD_CARD9-likecd08785Caspase activation and recruitment domain of CARD9 and related proteins. Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) found in CARD9, CARD14 (CARMA2), CARD10 (CARMA3), CARD11 (CARMA1) and BCL10. BCL10 (B-cell lymphoma 10), together with Malt1 (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-lymphoma-translocation gene 1), are integral components of the CBM signalosome. They associate with CARD9 to form M-CBM (CBM complex in myeloid immune cells), and with CARD11 to form L-CBM (CBM complex in lymphoid immune cells), which mediates activation of NF-kB and MAPK by ITAM-coupled receptors expressed on immune cells. BCL10/Malt1 also associates with CARD10, which is more widely expressed and is not restricted to hematopoietic cells, to play a role in GPCR-induced NF-kB activation. CARD14 has also been shown to associate with BCL10. In general, CARDs are death domains (DDs) found associated with caspases. They are known to be important in the signaling pathways for apoptosis, inflammation, and host-defense mechanisms. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and DED (Death Effector Domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176739CARD_CASP1-likecd08325Caspase activation and recruitment domain found in Caspase-1 and related proteins. Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) similar to those found in Caspase-1 (CASP1, ICE) and related proteins, including CARD-only proteins such as ICEBERG or CARD18, INCA (CARD17), CARD16 (COP1, PSEUDO-ICE), CARD8 (DACAR, NDPP1, TUCAN), and CARD12 (NLRC4), as well as ICE-like caspases such as CASP12, CASP5 (ICH-3) and CASP4 (TX, ICH-2). Caspases are aspartate-specific cysteine proteases with functions in apoptosis and immune signaling. CASP1 plays a central role in the cellular response to a wide variety of microbial and non-microbial stimuli, being activated by the inflammasome or the pyroptosome. CARD8 binds itself and the initiator caspase-9, interfering with the binding of APAF-1 and suppressing caspase-9 activation. CARD12 is a Nod-like receptor (NLR) that plays an important role in the innate immune response to Gram-negative bacteria. Caspase-4 (CASP4), -5 (CASP5), and -12 (CASP12) are inflammatory caspases implicated in inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis. In general, CARDs are death domains (DDs) found associated with caspases. They are known to be important in the signaling pathways for apoptosis, inflammation and host-defense mechanisms. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and DED (Death Effector Domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176744CARD_CASP2cd08332Caspase activation and recruitment domain of Caspase-2. Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) similar to that found in caspase-2. Caspases are aspartate-specific cysteine proteases with functions in apoptosis and immune signaling. Caspase-2 (also known as ICH1, NEDD2, or CASP2) is one of the most evolutionarily conserved caspases, and plays a role in apoptosis, DNA damage response, cell cycle regulation, and tumor suppression. It is localized in the nucleus and exhibits properties of both an initiator and an effector caspase. In general, CARDs are death domains (DDs) found associated with caspases. They are known to be important in the signaling pathways for apoptosis, inflammation, and host-defense mechanisms. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and DED (Death Effector Domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176740CARD_CASP9cd08326Caspase activation and recruitment domain of Caspase-9. Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) similar to that found in caspase-9 (CASP9, MCH6, APAF3), which interacts with the CARD of apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 (APAF-1). Caspases are aspartate-specific cysteine proteases with functions in apoptosis and immune signaling. Initiator caspases are the first to be activated following death- or inflammation-inducing signals. Caspase-9 is the initiator caspase associated with the intrinsic or mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, induced by many pro-apoptotic signals. Together with APAF-1, it forms the heptameric 'apoptosome' in response to the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Activated caspase-9 cleaves and activates downstream effector caspases, like caspase-3, caspase-6, and caspase-7, resulting in apoptosis. In general, CARDs are death domains (DDs) associated with caspases. They are known to be important in the signaling pathways for apoptosis, inflammation and host-defense mechanisms. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and DED (Death Effector Domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176767CARD_IPS-1_RIG-Icd08789Caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs) found in IPS-1 and RIG-I-like RNA helicases. Caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs) found in IPS-1 (Interferon beta promoter stimulator protein 1) and Retinoic acid Inducible Gene I (RIG-I)-like DEAD box helicases. RIG-I-like helicases and IPS-1 play important roles in the induction of interferons in response to viral infection. They are crucial in triggering innate immunity and in developing adaptive immunity against viral pathogens. RIG-I-like helicases, including MDA5 and RIG-I, contain two N-terminal CARD domains and a C-terminal DEAD box RNA helicase domain. They are cytoplasmic RNA helicases that play an important role in host antiviral response by sensing incoming viral RNA. Upon activation, the signal is transferred to downstream pathways via the adaptor molecule IPS-1 (MAVS, VISA, CARDIF), leading to the induction of type I interferons. MDA5 and RIG-I associate with IPS-1 through a CARD-CARD interaction. In general, CARDs are death domains (DDs) found associated with caspases. They are known to be important in the signaling pathways for apoptosis, inflammation, and host-defense mechanisms. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and DED (Death Effector Domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176789CARD_IPS1cd08811Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) found in IPS-1. Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) found in IPS-1 (Interferon beta promoter stimulator protein 1), also known as CARDIF, VISA or MAVS. IPS-1 is an adaptor protein that plays an important role in interferon induction in response to viral infection. It is crucial in triggering innate immunity and in developing adaptive immunity against viral pathogens. The CARD of IPS-1 associates with the CARDs of two RNA helicases, RIG-I and MDA5, which bind viral DNA in the cytoplasm during the initial stage of intracellular antiviral response, leading to the induction of type I interferons. In general, CARDs are death domains (DDs) found associated with caspases. They are known to be important in the signaling pathways for apoptosis, inflammation, and host-defense mechanisms. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and DED (Death Effector Domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176796CARD_MDA5_1cd08818Caspase activation and recruitment domain found in MDA5, first repeat. Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) found in MDA5 (melanoma-differentiation-associated gene 5), first repeat. MDA5, also known as IFIH1, contains two N-terminal CARD domains and a C-terminal RNA helicase domain. MDA5 is a cytoplasmic DEAD box RNA helicase that plays an important role in host antiviral response by sensing incoming viral RNA. Upon activation, the signal is transferred to downstream pathways via the adaptor molecule IPS-1 (MAVS, VISA, CARDIF), leading to the induction of type I interferons. Although very similar in sequence, MDA5 recognizes different sets of viruses compared to RIG-I, a related RNA helicase. MDA5 associates with IPS-1 through a CARD-CARD interaction. In general, CARDs are death domains (DDs) found associated with caspases. They are known to be important in the signaling pathways for apoptosis, inflammation, and host-defense mechanisms. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and DED (Death Effector Domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176797CARD_MDA5_2cd08819Caspase activation and recruitment domain found in MDA5, second repeat. Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) found in MDA5 (melanoma-differentiation-associated gene 5), second repeat. MDA5, also known as IFIH1, contains two N-terminal CARD domains and a C-terminal RNA helicase domain. MDA5 is a cytoplasmic DEAD box RNA helicase that plays an important role in host antiviral response by sensing incoming viral RNA. Upon activation, the signal is transferred to downstream pathways via the adaptor molecule IPS-1 (MAVS, VISA, CARDIF), leading to the induction of type I interferons. Although very similar in sequence, MDA5 recognizes different sets of viruses compared to RIG-I, a related RNA helicase. MDA5 associates with IPS-1 through a CARD-CARD interaction. In general, CARDs are death domains (DDs) found associated with caspases. They are known to be important in the signaling pathways for apoptosis, inflammation, and host-defense mechanisms. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and DED (Death Effector Domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176738CARD_NOD1_CARD4cd08324Caspase activation and recruitment domain similar to that found in NOD1. Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) found in human NOD1 (CARD4) and similar proteins. NOD1 is a member of the Nod-like receptor (NLR) family, which plays a central role in the innate immune response. NLRs typically contain an N-terminal effector domain, a central nucleotide-binding domain and a C-terminal ligand-binding region of several leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). In NOD1, as well as NOD2, the N-terminal effector domain is a CARD. Nod1-CARD has been shown to interact with the CARD domain of the downstream effector RICK (RIP2, CARDIAK), a serine/threonine kinase. In general, CARDs are death domains (DDs) found associated with caspases. They are known to be important in the signaling pathways for apoptosis, inflammation, and host-defense mechanisms. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and DED (Death Effector Domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176765CARD_NOD2_1_CARD15cd08787Caspase activation and recruitment domain of NOD2, repeat 1. Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) similar to that found in human NOD2 (CARD15), repeat 1. NOD2 is a member of the Nod-like receptor (NLR) family, which plays a central role in the innate immune response. NLRs typically contain an N-terminal effector domain, a central nucleotide-binding domain and a C-terminal ligand-binding region of several leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). In NOD2, as well as NOD1, the N-terminal effector domain is a CARD. NOD2 contains two N-terminal CARD repeats. Mutations in NOD2 have been associated with Crohns disease and Blau syndrome. Nod2-CARDs have been shown to interact with the CARD domain of the downstream effector RICK (RIP2, CARDIAK), a serine/threonine kinase. In general, CARDs are death domains (DDs) found associated with caspases. They are known to be important in the signaling pathways for apoptosis, inflammation, and host-defense mechanisms. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and DED (Death Effector Domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176766CARD_NOD2_2_CARD15cd08788Caspase activation and recruitment domain of NOD2, repeat 2. Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) similar to that found in human NOD2 (CARD15), repeat 2. NOD2 is a member of the Nod-like receptor (NLR) family, which plays a central role in the innate immune response. NLRs typically contain an N-terminal effector domain, a central nucleotide-binding domain and a C-terminal ligand-binding region of several leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). In NOD2, as well as NOD1, the N-terminal effector domain is a CARD. NOD2 contains two N-terminal CARD repeats. Mutations in NOD2 have been associated with Crohns disease and Blau syndrome. Nod2-CARDs have been shown to interact with the CARD domain of the downstream effector RICK (RIP2, CARDIAK), a serine/threonine kinase. In general, CARDs are death domains (DDs) found associated with caspases. They are known to be important in the signaling pathways for apoptosis, inflammation, and host-defense mechanisms. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and DED (Death Effector Domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176741CARD_RAIDDcd08327Caspase activation and recruitment domain of RIP-associated ICH-1 homologous protein with a death domain. Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) of RAIDD (RIP-associated ICH-1 homologous protein with a death domain), also known as CRADD (Caspase and RIP adaptor). RAIDD is an adaptor protein that together with the p53-inducible protein PIDD and caspase-2, forms the PIDDosome complex, which is required for caspase-2 activation and plays a role in mediating stress-induced apoptosis. RAIDD contains an N-terminal CARD, which interacts with the caspase-2 CARD, and a C-terminal Death domain (DD), which interacts with the DD of PIDD. In general, CARDs are DDs associated with caspases. They are known to be important in the signaling pathways for apoptosis, inflammation and host-defense mechanisms. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and DED (Death Effector Domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176794CARD_RIG-I_1cd08816Caspase activation and recruitment domain found in RIG-I, first repeat. Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) found in RIG-I (Retinoic acid Inducible Gene I, also known as Ddx58), first repeat. RIG-I is a cytoplasmic RNA helicase that plays an important role in host antiviral response by sensing incoming viral RNA. RIG-I contains two N-terminal CARD domains and a C-terminal RNA helicase. Upon activation, the signal is transferred to downstream pathways via the adaptor molecule IPS-1 (MAVS, VISA, CARDIF), leading to the induction of type I interferons. Although very similar in sequence, RIG-I recognizes different sets of viruses compared to MDA5, a related RNA helicase. RIG-I associates with IPS-1 through a CARD-CARD interaction. In general, CARDs are death domains (DDs) found associated with caspases. They are known to be important in the signaling pathways for apoptosis, inflammation, and host-defense mechanisms. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and DED (Death Effector Domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176795CARD_RIG-I_2cd08817Caspase activation and recruitment domain found in RIG-I, second repeat. Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) found in RIG-I (Retinoic acid Inducible Gene I, also known as Ddx58), second repeat. RIG-I is a cytoplasmic RNA helicase that plays an important role in host antiviral response by sensing incoming viral RNA. RIG-I contains two N-terminal CARD domains and a C-terminal RNA helicase. Upon activation, the signal is transferred to downstream pathways via the adaptor molecule IPS-1 (MAVS, VISA, CARDIF), leading to the induction of type I interferons. Although very similar in sequence, RIG-I recognizes different sets of viruses compared to MDA5, a related RNA helicase. RIG-I associates with IPS-1 through a CARD-CARD interaction. In general, CARDs are death domains (DDs) found associated with caspases. They are known to be important in the signaling pathways for apoptosis, inflammation, and host-defense mechanisms. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and DED (Death Effector Domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176790CARD_RIG-I_likecd08812Caspase activation and recruitment domains found in RIG-I-like DEAD box helicases. Caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs) found in Retinoic acid Inducible Gene I (RIG-I)-like DEAD box helicases. These helicases, including MDA5 and RIG-I, contain two N-terminal CARD domains and a C-terminal DEAD box RNA helicase domain. They are cytoplasmic RNA helicases that play an important role in host antiviral response by sensing incoming viral RNA. Upon activation, the signal is transferred to downstream pathways via the adaptor molecule IPS-1 (MAVS, VISA, CARDIF), leading to the induction of type I interferons. Although very similar in sequence, RIG-I and MDA5 have been shown to recognize different sets of viruses. MDA5 and RIG-I associate with IPS-1 through a CARD-CARD interaction. In general, CARDs are death domains (DDs) found associated with caspases. They are known to be important in the signaling pathways for apoptosis, inflammation, and host-defense mechanisms. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and DED (Death Effector Domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176764CARD_RIP2_CARD3cd08786Caspase activation and recruitment domain of Receptor Interacting Protein 2. Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) of Receptor Interacting Protein 2 (RIP2/RIPK2/RICK/CARDIAK/CARD3). RIP kinases serve as essential sensors of cellular stress. Vertebrates contain several types containing a homologous N-terminal kinase domain and varying C-terminal domains. RIP2 harbors a C-terminal CARD domain and functions as an effector kinase downstream of the pattern recognition receptors from the Nod-like (NLR)-family, NOD1 and NOD2, which recognizes bacterial peptidoglycans released upon infection. This cascade is implicated in inflammatory immune responses and the clearance of intracellular pathogens. RIP2 associates with NOD1 and NOD2 via CARD-CARD interactions. In general, CARDs are death domains (DDs) found associated with caspases. They are known to be important in the signaling pathways for apoptosis, inflammation, and host-defense mechanisms. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and DED (Death Effector Domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
119437CBM20cd05467The family 20 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM20), also known as the starch-binding domain, is found in a large number of starch degrading enzymes including alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, glucoamylase, and CGTase (cyclodextrin glucanotransferase). CBM20 is also present in proteins that have a regulatory role in starch metabolism in plants (e.g. alpha-amylase) or glycogen metabolism in mammals (e.g. laforin). CBM20 folds as an antiparallel beta-barrel structure with two starch binding sites. These two sites are thought to differ functionally with site 1 acting as the initial starch recognition site and site 2 involved in the specific recognition of appropriate regions of starch.
99884CBM20_beta_amylasecd05809Beta-amylase, C-terminal CBM20 (carbohydrate-binding module, family 20) domain. Beta-amylase has, in addition to its C-terminal CBM20 domain, an N-terminal catalytic domain belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 14, which hydrolyzes the alpha-1,4-glucosidic bonds of starch, yielding beta-maltose from the nonreducing end of the substrate. Beta-amylase is found in both plants and microorganisms, however the plant members lack a C-terminal CBM20 domain and are not included in this group. The CBM20 domain is found in a large number of starch degrading enzymes including alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, glucoamylase, and CGTase (cyclodextrin glucanotransferase). CBM20 is also present in proteins that have a regulatory role in starch metabolism in plants (e.g. alpha-amylase) or glycogen metabolism in mammals (e.g. laforin). CBM20 folds as an antiparallel beta-barrel structure with two starch binding sites. These two sites are thought to differ functionally with site 1 acting as the initial starch recognition site and site 2 involved in the specific recognition of appropriate regions of starch.
99882CBM20_CGTasecd05807CGTase, C-terminal CBM20 (carbohydrate-binding module, family 20) domain. CGTase, also known as cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase and cyclodextrin glucanotransferase, catalyzes the formation of various cyclodextrins (alpha-1,4-glucans) from starch. CGTase has, in addition to its C-terminal CBM20 domain, an N-terminal catalytic domain belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 13 and an IPT domain of unknown function. The CBM20 domain is found in a large number of starch degrading enzymes including alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, glucoamylase, and CGTase (cyclodextrin glucanotransferase). CBM20 is also present in proteins that have a regulatory role in starch metabolism in plants (e.g. alpha-amylase) or glycogen metabolism in mammals (e.g. laforin). CBM20 folds as an antiparallel beta-barrel structure with two starch binding sites. These two sites are thought to differ functionally with site 1 acting as the initial starch recognition site and site 2 involved in the specific recognition of appropriate regions of starch.
99890CBM20_DPE2_repeat2cd05816Disproportionating enzyme 2 (DPE2), N-terminal CBM20 (carbohydrate-binding module, family 20) domain, repeat 2. DPE2 is a transglucosidase that is essential for the cytosolic metabolism of maltose in plant leaves at night. Maltose is an intermediate on the pathway from starch to sucrose and DPE2 is thought to metabolize the maltose that is exported from the chloroplast. DPE2 has two N-terminal CBM20 domains as well as a C-terminal amylomaltase (4-alpha-glucanotransferase) catalytic domain. DPE1, the plastid version of this enzyme, has a transglucosidase domain that is similar to that of DPE2 but lacks the N-terminal CBM20 domains. Included in this group are PDE2-like proteins from Dictyostelium, Entamoeba, and Bacteroides. The CBM20 domain is found in a large number of starch degrading enzymes including alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, glucoamylase, and CGTase (cyclodextrin glucanotransferase). CBM20 is also present in proteins that have a regulatory role in starch metabolism in plants (e.g. alpha-amylase) or glycogen metabolism in mammals (e.g. laforin). CBM20 folds as an antiparallel beta-barrel structure with two starch binding sites. These two sites are thought to differ functionally with site 1 acting as the initial starch recognition site and site 2 involved in the specific recognition of appropriate regions of starch.
99891CBM20_DSPcd05817Dual-specificity phosphatase (DSP), N-terminal CBM20 (carbohydrate-binding module, family 20) domain. This CBM20 domain is located at the N-terminus of a protein tyrosine phosphatase of unknown function found in slime molds and ciliated protozoans. The CBM20 domain is found in a large number of starch degrading enzymes including alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, glucoamylase, and CGTase (cyclodextrin glucanotransferase). CBM20 is also present in proteins that have a regulatory role in starch metabolism in plants (e.g. alpha-amylase) or glycogen metabolism in mammals (e.g. laforin). CBM20 folds as an antiparallel beta-barrel structure with two starch binding sites. These two sites are thought to differ functionally with site 1 acting as the initial starch recognition site and site 2 involved in the specific recognition of appropriate regions of starch.
99887CBM20_genethonin_1cd05813Genethonin-1, C-terminal CBM20 (carbohydrate-binding module, family 20) domain. Genethonin-1 is a human skeletal muscle protein with no known function. It contains a C-terminal CBM20 domain. The CBM20 domain is found in a large number of starch degrading enzymes including alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, glucoamylase, and CGTase (cyclodextrin glucanotransferase). CBM20 is also present in proteins that have a regulatory role in starch metabolism in plants (e.g. alpha-amylase) or glycogen metabolism in mammals (e.g. laforin). CBM20 folds as an antiparallel beta-barrel structure with two starch binding sites. These two sites are thought to differ functionally with site 1 acting as the initial starch recognition site and site 2 involved in the specific recognition of appropriate regions of starch.
99886CBM20_glucoamylasecd05811Glucoamylase (glucan1,4-alpha-glucosidase), C-terminal CBM20 (carbohydrate-binding module, family 20) domain. Glucoamylases are inverting, exo-acting starch hydrolases that hydrolyze starch and related polysaccharides by releasing the nonreducing end glucose. They are mainly active on alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds but also have some activity towards 1,6-glycosidic bonds occurring in natural oligosaccharides. The ability of glucoamylases to cleave 1-6-glycosidic binds is called "debranching activity" and is of importance in industrial applications, where complete degradation of starch to glucose is needed. Most glucoamylases are multidomain proteins containing an N-terminal catalytic domain, a C-terminal CBM20 domain, and a highly O-glycosylated linker region that connects the two. The CBM20 domain is found in a large number of starch degrading enzymes including alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, glucoamylase, and CGTase (cyclodextrin glucanotransferase). CBM20 is also present in proteins that have a regulatory role in starch metabolism in plants (e.g. alpha-amylase) or glycogen metabolism in mammals (e.g. laforin). CBM20 folds as an antiparallel beta-barrel structure with two starch binding sites. These two sites are thought to differ functionally with site 1 acting as the initial starch recognition site and site 2 involved in the specific recognition of appropriate regions of starch.
99881CBM20_laforincd05806Laforin protein tyrosine phosphatase, N-terminal CBM20 (carbohydrate-binding module, family 20) domain. Laforin, encoded by the EPM2A gene, is a dual-specificity phosphatase that dephosphorylates complex carbohydrates. Mutations in the gene encoding laforin result in Lafora disease, a fatal autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of intracellular deposits of insoluble, abnormally branched, glycogen-like polymers, known as Lafora bodies, in neurons, muscle, liver, and other tissues. The molecular basis for the formation of these Lafora bodies is unknown. Laforin is one of the only phosphatases that contains a carbohydrate-binding module. The CBM20 domain is found in a large number of starch degrading enzymes including alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, glucoamylase, and CGTase (cyclodextrin glucanotransferase). CBM20 is also present in proteins that have a regulatory role in starch metabolism in plants (e.g. alpha-amylase) or glycogen metabolism in mammals (e.g. laforin). CBM20 folds as an antiparallel beta-barrel structure with two starch binding sites. These two sites are thought to differ functionally with site 1 acting as the initial starch recognition site and site 2 involved in the specific recognition of appropriate regions of starch.
99893CBM20_novamylcd05820Novamyl (also known as acarviose transferase, ATase, maltogenic alpha-amylase, glucan 1,4-alpha-maltohydrolase, and AcbD), C-terminal CBM20 (carbohydrate-binding module, family 20) domain. Novamyl has a five-domain structure similar to that of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase). Novamyl has a substrate-binding surface with an open groove which can accommodate both cyclodextrins and linear substrates. The CBM20 domain is found in a large number of starch degrading enzymes including alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, glucoamylase, and CGTase (cyclodextrin glucanotransferase). CBM20 is also present in proteins that have a regulatory role in starch metabolism in plants (e.g. alpha-amylase) or glycogen metabolism in mammals (e.g. laforin). CBM20 folds as an antiparallel beta-barrel structure with two starch binding sites. These two sites are thought to differ functionally with site 1 acting as the initial starch recognition site and site 2 involved in the specific recognition of appropriate regions of starch.
99888CBM20_Prei4cd05814Prei4, N-terminal CBM20 (carbohydrate-binding module, family 20) domain. Preimplantation protein 4 (Prei4) is a protein of unknown function that is expressed during mouse preimplantation embryogenesis. In addition to the N-terminal CBM20 domain, Prei4 contains a C-terminal glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterase (GDPD) domain. The CBM20 domain is found in a large number of starch degrading enzymes including alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, glucoamylase, and CGTase (cyclodextrin glucanotransferase). CBM20 is also present in proteins that have a regulatory role in starch metabolism in plants (e.g. alpha-amylase) or glycogen metabolism in mammals (e.g. laforin). CBM20 folds as an antiparallel beta-barrel structure with two starch binding sites. These two sites are thought to differ functionally with site 1 acting as the initial starch recognition site and site 2 involved in the specific recognition of appropriate regions of starch.
99892CBM20_water_dikinasecd05818Phosphoglucan water dikinase (also known as alpha-glucan water dikinase), N-terminal CBM20 (carbohydrate-binding module, family 20) domain. This domain is found in the chloroplast-encoded phosphoglucan water dikinase, one of two enzymes involved in the phosphorylation of plant starches. In addition to the CBM20 domain, phosphoglucan water dikinase contains a C-terminal pyruvate binding domain. The CBM20 domain is found in a large number of starch degrading enzymes including alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, glucoamylase, and CGTase (cyclodextrin glucanotransferase). CBM20 is also present in proteins that have a regulatory role in starch metabolism in plants (e.g. alpha-amylase) or glycogen metabolism in mammals (e.g. laforin). CBM20 folds as an antiparallel beta-barrel structure with two starch binding sites. These two sites are thought to differ functionally with site 1 acting as the initial starch recognition site and site 2 involved in the specific recognition of appropriate regions of starch.
201313CBSpfam00571CBS domain. CBS domains are small intracellular modules that pair together to form a stable globular domain. This family represents a single CBS domain. Pairs of these domains have been termed a Bateman domain. CBS domains have been shown to bind ligands with an adenosyl group such as AMP, ATP and S-AdoMet. CBS domains are found attached to a wide range of other protein domains suggesting that CBS domains may play a regulatory role making proteins sensitive to adenosyl carrying ligands. The region containing the CBS domains in Cystathionine-beta synthase is involved in regulation by S-AdoMet. CBS domain pairs from AMPK bind AMP or ATP. The CBS domains from IMPDH and the chloride channel CLC2 bind ATP.
239956CBS_pair_ABC_OpuCA_acd04583This cd contains two tandem repeats of the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS pair) domains in association with the ABC transporter OpuCA. OpuCA is the ATP binding component of a bacterial solute transporter that serves a protective role to cells growing in a hyperosmolar environment but the function of the CBS domains in OpuCA remains unknown. In the related ABC transporter, OpuA, the tandem CBS domains have been shown to function as sensors for ionic strength, whereby they control the transport activity through an electronic switching mechanism. ABC transporters are a large family of proteins involved in the transport of a wide variety of different compounds, like sugars, ions, peptides, and more complex organic molecules. They are a subset of nucleotide hydrolases that contain a signature motif, Q-loop, and H-loop/switch region, in addition to the Walker A motif/P-loop and Walker B motif commonly found in a number of ATP- and GTP-binding and hydrolyzing proteins. CBS is a small domain originally identified in cystathionine beta-synthase and subsequently found in a wide range of different proteins. CBS domains usually come in tandem repeats, which associate to form a so-called Bateman domain or a CBS pair which is reflected in this model. The interface between the two CBS domains forms a cleft that is a potential ligand binding site. The CBS pair coexists with a variety of other functional domains. It has been proposed that the CBS domain may play a regulatory role, although its exact function is unknown.
239957CBS_pair_ACT_assoccd04584This cd contains two tandem repeats of the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS pair) domains in the acetoin utilization proteins in bacteria. Acetoin is a product of fermentative metabolism in many prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. They produce acetoin as an external carbon storage compound and then later reuse it as a carbon and energy source during their stationary phase and sporulation. In addition these CBS domains are associated with a downstream ACT domain, which is linked to a wide range of metabolic enzymes that are regulated by amino acid concentration. Pairs of ACT domains bind specifically to a particular amino acid leading to regulation of the linked enzyme. CBS is a small domain originally identified in cystathionine beta-synthase and subsequently found in a wide range of different proteins. CBS domains usually come in tandem repeats, which associate to form a so-called Bateman domain or a CBS pair which is reflected in this model. The interface between the two CBS domains forms a cleft that is a potential ligand binding site. The CBS pair coexists with a variety of other functional domains. It has been proposed that the CBS domain may play a regulatory role, although its exact function is unknown.
239958CBS_pair_ACT_assoc2cd04585This cd contains two tandem repeats of the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS pair) domains in the acetoin utilization proteins in bacteria. Acetoin is a product of fermentative metabolism in many prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. They produce acetoin as an external carbon storage compound and then later reuse it as a carbon and energy source during their stationary phase and sporulation. In addition these CBS domains are associated with a downstream ACT domain, which is linked to a wide range of metabolic enzymes that are regulated by amino acid concentration. Pairs of ACT domains bind specifically to a particular amino acid leading to regulation of the linked enzyme. CBS is a small domain originally identified in cystathionine beta-synthase and subsequently found in a wide range of different proteins. CBS domains usually come in tandem repeats, which associate to form a so-called Bateman domain or a CBS pair which is reflected in this model. The interface between the two CBS domains forms a cleft that is a potential ligand binding site. The CBS pair coexists with a variety of other functional domains. It has been proposed that the CBS domain may play a regulatory role, although its exact function is unknown.
239959CBS_pair_BON_assoccd04586This cd contains two tandem repeats of the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS pair) domains associated with the BON (bacterial OsmY and nodulation domain) domain. BON is a putative phospholipid-binding domain found in a family of osmotic shock protection proteins. It is also found in some secretins and a group of potential haemolysins. Its likely function is attachment to phospholipid membranes. CBS is a small domain originally identified in cystathionine beta-synthase and subsequently found in a wide range of different proteins. CBS domains usually come in tandem repeats, which associate to form a so-called Bateman domain or a CBS pair which is reflected in this model. The interface between the two CBS domains forms a cleft that is a potential ligand binding site. The CBS pair coexists with a variety of other functional domains. It has been proposed that the CBS domain may play a regulatory role, although its exact function is unknown.
239960CBS_pair_CAP-ED_DUF2cd04587This cd contains two tandem repeats of the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS pair) domains associated with either the CAP_ED (cAMP receptor protein effector domain) family of transcription factors and the DUF294 domain or the PB1 (Phox and Bem1p) domain. Members of CAP_ED, include CAP which binds cAMP, FNR (fumarate and nitrate reductase) which uses an iron-sulfur cluster to sense oxygen, and CooA a heme containing CO sensor. In all cases binding of the effector leads to conformational changes and the ability to activate transcription. DUF294 is a putative nucleotidyltransferase with a conserved DxD motif. The PB1 domain adopts a beta-grasp fold, similar to that found in ubiquitin and Ras-binding domains. A motif, variously termed OPR, PC and AID, represents the most conserved region of the majority of PB1 domains, and is necessary for PB1 domain function. This function is the formation of PB1 domain heterodimers, although not all PB1 domain pairs associate. CBS is a small domain originally identified in cystathionine beta-synthase and subsequently found in a wide range of different proteins. CBS domains usually come in tandem repeats, which associate to form a so-called Bateman domain or a CBS pair which is reflected in this model. The interface between the two CBS domains forms a cleft that is a potential ligand binding site. The CBS pair coexists with a variety of other functional domains. It has been proposed that the CBS domain may play a regulatory role, although its exact function is unknown.
240113CBS_pair_CAP-ED_DUF2cd04800This cd contains two tandem repeats of the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS pair) domains associated with either the CAP_ED (cAMP receptor protein effector domain) family of transcription factors and the DUF294 domain or the PB1 (Phox and Bem1p) domain. Members of CAP_ED, include CAP which binds cAMP, FNR (fumarate and nitrate reductase) which uses an iron-sulfur cluster to sense oxygen, and CooA a heme containing CO sensor. In all cases binding of the effector leads to conformational changes and the ability to activate transcription. DUF294 is a putative nucleotidyltransferase with a conserved DxD motif. The PB1 domain adopts a beta-grasp fold, similar to that found in ubiquitin and Ras-binding domains. A motif, variously termed OPR, PC and AID, represents the most conserved region of the majority of PB1 domains, and is necessary for PB1 domain function. This function is the formation of PB1 domain heterodimers, although not all PB1 domain pairs associate. CBS is a small domain originally identified in cystathionine beta-synthase and subsequently found in a wide range of different proteins. CBS domains usually come in tandem repeats, which associate to form a so-called Bateman domain or a CBS pair which is reflected in this model. The interface between the two CBS domains forms a cleft that is a potential ligand binding site. The CBS pair coexists with a variety of other functional domains. It has been proposed that the CBS domain may play a regulatory role, although its exact function is unknown.
239963CBS_pair_CorC_HlyC_acd04590This cd contains two tandem repeats of the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS pair) domains associated with the CorC_HlyC domain. CorC_HlyC is a transporter associated domain. This small domain is found in Na+/H+ antiporters, in proteins involved in magnesium and cobalt efflux, and in association with some proteins of unknown function. The function of the CorC_HlyC domain is uncertain but it might be involved in modulating transport of ion substrates. CBS is a small domain originally identified in cystathionine beta-synthase and subsequently found in a wide range of different proteins. CBS domains usually come in tandem repeats, which associate to form a so-called Bateman domain or a CBS pair which is reflected in this model. The interface between the two CBS domains forms a cleft that is a potential ligand binding site. The CBS pair coexists with a variety of other functional domains. It has been proposed that the CBS domain may play a regulatory role, although its exact function is unknown. The second CBS domain in this CD is degenerate.
239964CBS_pair_EriC_assoc_cd04591This cd contains two tandem repeats of the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS pair) domains in the EriC CIC-type chloride channels in eukaryotes and bacteria. These ion channels are proteins with a seemingly simple task of allowing the passive flow of chloride ions across biological membranes. CIC-type chloride channels come from all kingdoms of life, have several gene families, and can be gated by voltage. The members of the CIC-type chloride channel are double-barreled: two proteins forming homodimers at a broad interface formed by four helices from each protein. The two pores are not found at this interface, but are completely contained within each subunit, as deduced from the mutational analyses, unlike many other channels, in which four or five identical or structurally related subunits jointly form one pore. CBS is a small domain originally identified in cystathionine beta-synthase and subsequently found in a wide range of different proteins. CBS domains usually come in tandem repeats, which associate to form a so-called Bateman domain or a CBS pair which is reflected in this model. The interface between the two CBS domains forms a cleft that is a potential ligand binding site. The CBS pair coexists with a variety of other functional domains. It has been proposed that the CBS domain may play a regulatory role, although its exact function is unknown. Mutations of conserved residues within this domain in CLC chloride channel family members have been associated with classic Bartter syndrome, Osteopetrosis, Dent's disease, idiopathic generalized epilepsy, and myotonia.
239974CBS_pair_IMPDHcd04601This cd contains two tandem repeats of the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS pair) domains in the inosine 5' monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) protein. IMPDH is an essential enzyme that catalyzes the first step unique to GTP synthesis, playing a key role in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. CBS is a small domain originally identified in cystathionine beta-synthase and subsequently found in a wide range of different proteins. CBS domains usually come in tandem repeats, which associate to form a so-called Bateman domain or a CBS pair which is reflected in this model. The interface between the two CBS domains forms a cleft that is a potential ligand binding site. The CBS pair coexists with a variety of other functional domains. It has been proposed that the CBS domain may play a regulatory role, although its exact function is unknown. Mutations of conserved residues within this domain in IMPDH have been associated with retinitis pigmentosa.
239975CBS_pair_IMPDH_2cd04602This cd contains two tandem repeats of the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS pair) domains in the inosine 5' monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) protein. IMPDH is an essential enzyme that catalyzes the first step unique to GTP synthesis, playing a key role in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. CBS is a small domain originally identified in cystathionine beta-synthase and subsequently found in a wide range of different proteins. CBS domains usually come in tandem repeats, which associate to form a so-called Bateman domain or a CBS pair which is reflected in this model. The interface between the two CBS domains forms a cleft that is a potential ligand binding site. The CBS pair coexists with a variety of other functional domains. It has been proposed that the CBS domain may play a regulatory role, although its exact function is unknown. Mutations of conserved residues within this domain in IMPDH have been associated with retinitis pigmentosa.
239981CBS_pair_PALP_assoccd04608This cd contains two tandem repeats of the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS pair) domains associated with the pyridoxal-phosphate (PALP) dependent enzyme domain upstream. The vitamin B6 complex comprises pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine, as well as the 5'-phosphate esters of pyridoxal (PALP) and pyridoxamine, the last two being the biologically active coenzyme derivatives. The members of the PALP family are principally involved in the biosynthesis of amino acids and amino acid-derived metabolites, but they are also found in the biosynthetic pathways of amino sugars and other amine-containing compounds. CBS is a small domain originally identified in cystathionine beta-synthase and subsequently found in a wide range of different proteins. CBS domains usually come in tandem repeats, which associate to form a so-called Bateman domain or a CBS pair which is reflected in this model. The interface between the two CBS domains forms a cleft that is a potential ligand binding site. The CBS pair coexists with a variety of other functional domains. It has been proposed that the CBS domain may play a regulatory role, although its exact function is unknown.
239982CBS_pair_PALP_assoc2cd04609This cd contains two tandem repeats of the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS pair) domains associated with the pyridoxal-phosphate (PALP) dependent enzyme domain upstream. The vitamin B6 complex comprises pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine, as well as the 5'-phosphate esters of pyridoxal (PALP) and pyridoxamine, the last two being the biologically active coenzyme derivatives. The members of the PALP family are principally involved in the biosynthesis of amino acids and amino acid-derived metabolites, but they are also found in the biosynthetic pathways of amino sugars and other amine-containing compounds. CBS is a small domain originally identified in cystathionine beta-synthase and subsequently found in a wide range of different proteins. CBS domains usually come in tandem repeats, which associate to form a so-called Bateman domain or a CBS pair which is reflected in this model. The interface between the two CBS domains forms a cleft that is a potential ligand binding site. The CBS pair coexists with a variety of other functional domains. It has been proposed that the CBS domain may play a regulatory role, although its exact function is unknown.
239985CBS_pair_SpoIVFB_Ericd04612This cd contains two tandem repeats of the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS pair) domains in association with either the SpoIVFB domain (sporulation protein, stage IV cell wall formation, F locus, promoter-distal B) or the chloride channel protein EriC. SpoIVFB is one of 4 proteins involved in endospore formation; the others are SpoIVFA (sporulation protein, stage IV cell wall formation, F locus, promoter-proximal A), BofA (bypass-of-forespore A ), and SpoIVB (sporulation protein, stage IV cell wall formation, B locus). SpoIVFB is negatively regulated by SpoIVFA and BofA and activated by SpoIVB. It is thought that SpoIVFB, SpoIVFA, and BofA are located in the mother-cell membrane that surrounds the forespore and that SpoIVB is secreted from the forespore into the space between the two where it activates SpoIVFB. EriC is involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism. CBS is a small domain originally identified in cystathionine beta-synthase and subsequently found in a wide range of different proteins. CBS domains usually come in tandem repeats, which associate to form a so-called Bateman domain or a CBS pair which is reflected in this model. The interface between the two CBS domains forms a cleft that is a potential ligand binding site. The CBS pair coexists with a variety of other functional domains. It has been proposed that the CBS domain may play a regulatory role, although its exact function is unknown.
239986CBS_pair_SpoIVFB_Ericd04613This cd contains two tandem repeats of the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS pair) domains in association with either the SpoIVFB domain (sporulation protein, stage IV cell wall formation, F locus, promoter-distal B) or the chloride channel protein EriC. SpoIVFB is one of 4 proteins involved in endospore formation; the others are SpoIVFA (sporulation protein, stage IV cell wall formation, F locus, promoter-proximal A), BofA (bypass-of-forespore A ), and SpoIVB (sporulation protein, stage IV cell wall formation, B locus). SpoIVFB is negatively regulated by SpoIVFA and BofA and activated by SpoIVB. It is thought that SpoIVFB, SpoIVFA, and BofA are located in the mother-cell membrane that surrounds the forespore and that SpoIVB is secreted from the forespore into the space between the two where it activates SpoIVFB. EriC is involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism. CBS is a small domain originally identified in cystathionine beta-synthase and subsequently found in a wide range of different proteins. CBS domains usually come in tandem repeats, which associate to form a so-called Bateman domain or a CBS pair which is reflected in this model. The interface between the two CBS domains forms a cleft that is a potential ligand binding site. The CBS pair coexists with a variety of other functional domains. It has been proposed that the CBS domain may play a regulatory role, although its exact function is unknown.
239404CD81_like_LELcd03151Tetraspanin, extracellular domain or large extracellular loop (LEL), CD81_like subfamily. Tetraspanins are trans-membrane proteins with 4 trans-membrane segments. Both the N- and C-termini lie on the intracellular side of the membrane. This alignment model spans the extracellular domain between the 3rd and 4th trans-membrane segment. Tetraspanins are involved in diverse processes and their various functions may relate to their ability to act as molecular facilitators. Tetraspanins associate laterally with one another and cluster dynamically with numerous parnter domains in membrane microdomains, forming a network of multimolecular complexes, the "tetraspanin web". CD81, also referred to as Target for anti-proliferative antigen-1, TAPA-1, is found in virtually all tissues, may be involved in regulation of cell growth and has been described as a member of the CD19/CD21/Leu-13 signal transduction complex identified on B cells (the B-Cell co-receptor).
239405CD9_LELcd03152Tetraspanin, extracellular domain or large extracellular loop (LEL), CD9 family. Tetraspanins are trans-membrane proteins with 4 trans-membrane segments. Both the N- and C-termini lie on the intracellular side of the membrane. This alignment model spans the extracellular domain between the 3rd and 4th trans-membrane segment. Tetraspanins are involved in diverse processes and their various functions may relate to their ability to act as molecular facilitators. Tetraspanins associate laterally with one another and cluster dynamically with numerous parnter domains in membrane microdomains, forming a network of multimolecular complexes, the "tetraspanin web". CD9 is found in virtually all tissues and is potentially involved in developmental processes. It associates with the tetraspanins CD81 and CD63, as well as with some integrin, and has been shown to be involved in a variety of activation, adhesion, and cell motility functions, as well as cell-cell interactions - such as during fertilization.
176573Cdc6_Ccd08768Winged-helix domain of essential DNA replication protein Cell division control protein (Cdc6), which mediates DNA binding. This model characterizes the winged-helix, C-terminal domain of the Cell division control protein (Cdc6_C). Cdc6 (also known as Cell division cycle 6 or Cdc18) functions as a regulator at the early stages of DNA replication, by helping to recruit and load the Minichromosome Maintenance Complex (MCM) onto DNA and may have additional roles in the control of mitotic entry. Precise duplication of chromosomal DNA is required for genomic stability during replication. Cdc6 has an essential role in DNA replication and irregular expression of Cdc6 may lead to genomic instability. Cdc6 over-expression is observed in many cancerous lesions. DNA replication begins when an origin recognition complex (ORC) binds to a replication origin site on the chromatin. Studies indicate that Cdc6 interacts with ORC through the Orc1 subunit, and that this association increases the specificity of the ORC-origins interaction. Further studies suggest that hydrolysis of Cdc6-bound ATP promotes the association of the replication licensing factor Cdt1 with origins through an interaction with Orc6 and this in turn promotes the loading of MCM2-7 helicase onto chromatin. The MCM2-7 complex promotes the unwinding of DNA origins, and the binding of additional factors to initiate the DNA replication. S-Cdk (S-phase cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase complex) prevents rereplication by causing the Cdc6 protein to dissociate from ORC and prevents the Cdc6 and MCM proteins from reassembling at any origin. By phosphorylating Cdc6, S-Cdk also triggers Cdc6's ubiquitination. The Cdc6 protein is composed of three domains, an N-terminal AAA+ domain with Walker A and B, and Sensor-1 and -2 motifs. The central region contains a conserved nucleotide binding/ATPase domain and is a member of the ATPase superfamily. The C-terminal domain (Cdc6_C) is a conserved winged-helix domain that possibly mediates protein-protein interactions or direct DNA interactions. Cdc6 is conserved in eukaryotes, and related genes are found in Archaea. The winged helix fold structure of Cdc6_C is similar to the structures of other eukaryotic replication initiators without apparent sequence similarity.
133303Centaurin_gammacd04103Centaurin gamma (CENTG) GTPase. The centaurins (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta) are large, multi-domain proteins that all contain an ArfGAP domain and ankyrin repeats, and in some cases, numerous additional domains. Centaurin gamma contains an additional GTPase domain near its N-terminus. The specific function of this GTPase domain has not been well characterized, but centaurin gamma 2 (CENTG2) may play a role in the development of autism. Centaurin gamma 1 is also called PIKE (phosphatidyl inositol (PI) 3-kinase enhancer) and centaurin gamma 2 is also known as AGAP (ArfGAP protein with a GTPase-like domain, ankyrin repeats and a Pleckstrin homology domain) or GGAP. Three isoforms of PIKE have been identified. PIKE-S (short) and PIKE-L (long) are brain-specific isoforms, with PIKE-S restricted to the nucleus and PIKE-L found in multiple cellular compartments. A third isoform, PIKE-A was identified in human glioblastoma brain cancers and has been found in various tissues. GGAP has been shown to have high GTPase activity due to a direct intramolecular interaction between the N-terminal GTPase domain and the C-terminal ArfGAP domain. In human tissue, AGAP mRNA was detected in skeletal muscle, kidney, placenta, brain, heart, colon, and lung. Reduced expression levels were also observed in the spleen, liver, and small intestine.
219414CHRDpfam07452CHRD domain. CHRD (after SWISS-PROT abbreviation for chordin) is a novel domain identified in chordin, an inhibitor of bone morphogenetic proteins. This family includes bacterial homologues. It is anticipated to have an immunoglobulin-like beta-barrel structure based on limited similarity to superoxide dismutases but, as yet, no clear functional prediction can be made. Its most conserved feature is a GE[I/L]RCG[V/I/L] motif towards its C-terminal end Most bacterial proteins in this family have only one CHRD domain, whereas it is found repeated in many eukaryotic proteins such as human chordin and Drosophila SOG..
238391class_II_aaRS-like_ccd00768Class II tRNA amino-acyl synthetase-like catalytic core domain. Class II amino acyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) share a common fold and generally attach an amino acid to the 3' OH of ribose of the appropriate tRNA. PheRS is an exception in that it attaches the amino acid at the 2'-OH group, like class I aaRSs. These enzymes are usually homodimers. This domain is primarily responsible for ATP-dependent formation of the enzyme bound aminoacyl-adenylate. The substrate specificity of this reaction is further determined by additional domains. Intererestingly, this domain is also found is asparagine synthase A (AsnA), in the accessory subunit of mitochondrial polymerase gamma and in the bacterial ATP phosphoribosyltransferase regulatory subunit HisZ.
153059CLECT_CEL-1_likecd03589C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) of the type found in CEL-1 from Cucumaria echinata and Echinoidin from Anthocidaris crassispina. CLECT_CEL-1_like: C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) of the type found in CEL-1 from Cucumaria echinata and Echinoidin from Anthocidaris crassispina. CTLD refers to a domain homologous to the carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) of the C-type lectins. The CEL-1 CTLD binds three calcium ions and has a high specificity for N-acteylgalactosamine (GalNAc). CEL-1 exhibits strong cytotoxicity which is inhibited by GalNAc. This protein may play a role as a toxin defending against predation. Echinoidin is found in the coelomic fluid of the sea urchin and is specific for GalBeta1-3GalNAc. Echinoidin has a cell adhesive activity towards human cancer cells which is not mediated through the CTLD. Both CEL-1 and Echinoidin are multimeric proteins comprised of multiple dimers linked by disulfide bonds.
153061CLECT_collectin_likecd03591C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) of the type found in human collectins including lung surfactant proteins A and D, mannose- or mannan binding lectin (MBL), and CL-L1 (collectin liver 1). CLECT_collectin_like: C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) of the type found in human collectins including lung surfactant proteins A and D, mannose- or mannan binding lectin (MBL), and CL-L1 (collectin liver 1). CTLD refers to a domain homologous to the carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) of the C-type lectins. The CTLDs of these collectins bind carbohydrates on surfaces (e.g. pathogens, allergens, necrotic, or apoptotic cells) and mediate functions associated with killing and phagocytosis. MBPs recognize high mannose oligosaccharides in a calcium dependent manner, bind to a broad range of pathogens, and trigger cell killing by activating the complement pathway. MBP also acts directly as an opsonin. SP-A and SP-D in addition to functioning as host defense components, are components of pulmonary surfactant which play a role in surfactant homeostasis. Pulmonary surfactant is a phospholipid-protein complex which reduces the surface tension within the lungs. SP-A binds the major surfactant lipid: dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). SP-D binds two minor components of surfactant that contain sugar moieties: glucosylceramide and phosphatidylinositol (PI). MBP and SP-A, -D monomers are homotrimers with an N-terminal collagen region and three CTLDs. Multiple homotrimeric units associate to form supramolecular complexes. MBL deficiency results in an increased susceptibility to a large number of different infections and to inflammatory disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
153060CLECT_DC-SIGN_likecd03590C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) of the type found in human dendritic cell (DC)-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) and the related receptor, DC-SIGN receptor (DC-SIGNR). CLECT_DC-SIGN_like: C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) of the type found in human dendritic cell (DC)-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) and the related receptor, DC-SIGN receptor (DC-SIGNR). This group also contains proteins similar to hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) and langerin in human. These proteins are type II membrane proteins with a CTLD ectodomain. CTLD refers to a domain homologous to the carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) of the C-type lectins. DC-SIGN is thought to mediate the initial contact between dendritic cells and resting T cells, and may also mediate the rolling of DCs on epithelium. DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR bind to oligosaccharides present on human tissues, as well as, on pathogens including parasites, bacteria, and viruses. DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR bind to HIV enhancing viral infection of T cells. DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR are homotetrameric, and contain four CTLDs stabilized by a coiled coil of alpha helices. The hepatic ASGP-R is an endocytic recycling receptor which binds and internalizes desialylated glycoproteins having a terminal galactose or N-acetylgalactosamine residues on their N-linked carbohydrate chains, via the clathrin-coated pit mediated endocytic pathway, and delivers them to lysosomes for degradation. It has been proposed that glycoproteins bearing terminal Sia (sialic acid) alpha2, 6GalNAc and Sia alpha2, 6Gal are endogenous ligands for ASGP-R and that ASGP-R participates in regulating the relative concentration of serum glycoproteins bearing alpha 2,6-linked Sia. The human ASGP-R is a hetero-oligomer composed of two subunits, both of which are found within this group. Langerin is expressed in a subset of dendritic leukocytes, the Langerhans cells (LC). Langerin induces the formation of Birbeck Granules (BGs) and associates with these BGs following internalization. Langerin binds, in a calcium-dependent manner, to glyco-conjugates containing mannose and related sugars mediating their uptake and degradation. Langerin molecules oligomerize as trimers with three CTLDs held together by a coiled-coil of alpha helices.
153068CLECT_EMBP_likecd03598C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) of the type found in the human proteins, eosinophil major basic protein (EMBP) and prepro major basic protein homolog (MBPH). CLECT_EMBP_like: C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) of the type found in the human proteins, eosinophil major basic protein (EMBP) and prepro major basic protein homolog (MBPH). CTLD refers to a domain homologous to the carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) of the C-type lectins. Eosinophils and basophils carry out various functions in allergic, parasitic, and inflammatory diseases. EMBP is stored in eosinophil crystalloid granules and is released upon degranulation. EMBP is also expressed in basophils. The proform of EMBP is expressed in placental X cells and breast tissue and increases significantly during human pregnancy. EMBP has cytotoxic properties and damages bacteria and mammalian cells, in vitro, as well as, helminth parasites. EMBP deposition has been observed in the inflamed tissue of allergy patients in a variety of diseases including asthma, atopic dermatitis, and rhinitis. In addition to its cytotoxic functions, EMBP activates cells and stimulates cytokine production. EMBP has been shown to bind the proteoglycan heparin. The binding site is similar to the carbohydrate binding site of other classical CTLD, such as mannose-binding protein (MBP1), however, heparin binding to EMBP is calcium ion independent. MBPH has reduced potency in cytotoxic and cytostimulatory assays compared with EMBP.
153066CLECT_tetranectin_licd03596C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) of the type found in the tetranectin (TN), cartilage derived C-type lectin (CLECSF1), and stem cell growth factor (SCGF). CLECT_tetranectin_like: C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) of the type found in the tetranectin (TN), cartilage derived C-type lectin (CLECSF1), and stem cell growth factor (SCGF). CTLD refers to a domain homologous to the carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) of the C-type lectins. TN binds to plasminogen and stimulates activation of plasminogen, playing a key role in the regulation of proteolytic processes. The TN CTLD binds two calcium ions. Its calcium free form binds to various kringle-like protein ligands. Two residues involved in the coordination of calcium are critical for the binding of TN to the fourth kringle (K4) domain of plasminogen (Plg K4). TN binds the kringle 1-4 form of angiostatin (AST K1-4). AST K1-4 is a fragment of Plg, commonly found in cancer tissues. TN inhibits the binding of Plg and AST K1-4 to the extracellular matrix (EMC) of endothelial cells and counteracts the antiproliferative effects of AST K1-4 on these cells. TN also binds the tenth kringle domain of apolipoprotein (a). In addition, TN binds fibrin and complex polysaccharides in a Ca2+ dependent manner. The binding site for complex sulfated polysaccharides is N-terminal to the CTLD. TN is homotrimeric; N-terminal to the CTLD is an alpha helical domain responsible for trimerization of monomeric units. TN may modulate angiogenesis through interactions with angiostatin and coagulation through interaction with fibrin. TN may play a role in myogenesis and in bone development. Mice having a deletion in the TN gene exhibit a kyphotic spine abnormality. TN is a useful prognostic marker of certain cancer types. CLECSF1 is expressed in cartilage tissue, which is primarily intracellular matrix (ECM), and is a candidate for organizing ECM. SCGF is strongly expressed in bone marrow and is a cytokine for primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells.
214844CobW_Csmart00833Cobalamin synthesis protein cobW C-terminal domain. CobW proteins are generally found proximal to the trimeric cobaltochelatase subunit CobN, which is essential for vitamin B12 (cobalamin) biosynthesis. They contain a P-loop nucleotide-binding loop in the N-terminal domain and a histidine-rich region in the C-terminal portion suggesting a role in metal binding, possibly as an intermediary between the cobalt transport and chelation systems. CobW might be involved in cobalt reduction leading to cobalt(I) corrinoids. This entry represents the C-terminal domain found in CobW, as well as in P47K, a Pseudomonas chlororaphis protein needed for nitrile hydratase expression.
204914Condensin2nSMCpfam12422Condensin II non structural maintenance of chromosomes subunit. This domain family is found in eukaryotes, and is approximately 150 amino acids in length. This family is part of a non-SMC subunit of condensin II which is involved in maintenance of the structural integrity of chromosomes. Condensin II is made up of SMC (structural maintenance of chromosomes) and non-SMC subunits. The non-SMC subunits bind to the catalytic ends of the SMC subunit dimer. The condensin holocomplex is able to introduce superhelical tension into DNA in an ATP hydrolysis- dependent manner, resulting in the formation of positive supercoils in the presence of topoisomerase I and of positive knots in the presence of topoisomerase II.
143556CRD_Carboxypeptidasecd07447Cysteine-rich domain of carboxypeptidase Z, a member of the carboxypeptidase E family. The cysteine-rich-domain (CRD) is an essential part of carboxypeptidase Z, a member of the carboxypeptidase E family of metallocarboxypeptidases. This is a group of Zn-dependent enzymes implicated in the intra- and extracellular processing of proteins. Carboxypeptidase Z removes C-terminal basic amino acid residues from its substrates, particularly arginine. The CRD acts as a ligand-binding domain for Wnts involved in developmental processes. CPZ binds and may process Wnt-4, CPZ has also been found to enhance the induction of the homeobox gene Cdx1. During vertebrate embryogenesis, the CRD of CPZ upregulates Pax3, a Wnt reporter gene essential for patterning of somites and limb development.
143549CRD_FZcd07066CRD_domain cysteine-rich domain, also known as Fz (frizzled) domain. CRD_FZ is an essential component of a number of cell surface receptors, which are involved in multiple signal transduction pathways, particularly in modulating the activity of the Wnt proteins, which play a fundamental role in the early development of metazoans. CRD is also found in secreted frizzled related proteins (SFRPs), which lack the transmembrane segment found in the frizzled protein. The CRD domain is also present in the alpha-1 chain of mouse type XVIII collagen, in carboxypeptidase Z, several receptor tyrosine kinases, and the mosaic transmembrane serine protease corin. The CRD domain is well conserved in metazoans - 10 frizzled proteins have been identified in mammals, 4 in Drosophila and 3 in Caenorhabditis elegans. CRD domains have also been identified in multiple tandem copies in a Dictyostelium discoideum protein. Very little is known about the mechanism by which CRD domains interact with their ligands. The domain contains 10 conserved cysteines.
153076creatine_kinase_likecd00716Phosphagen (guanidino) kinases such as creatine kinase and similar enzymes. Eukaryotic creatine kinase-like phosphagen (guanidino) kinases are enzymes that transphosphorylate a high energy phosphoguanidino compound, like phosphocreatine (PCr) in the case of creatine kinase (CK), which is used as an energy-storage and -transport metabolite, to ADP, thereby creating ATP. The substrate binding site is located in the cleft between the N and C-terminal domains, but most of the catalytic residues are found in the larger C-terminal domain. In higher eukaryotes, CKs are found as tissue-specific (muscle, brain), as well as compartment-specific (mitochondrial, cytosolic, and flagellar) isoforms. Mitochondrial and cytoplasmic CKs are dimeric or octameric, while the flagellar isoforms are trimers with three CD domains fused as a single protein chain. CKs are either coupled to glycolysis (cytosolic form) or oxidative phosphorylation (mitochondrial form). Besides CK, one of the most studied members of this family, this model also represents other phosphagen kinases with different substrate specificities, like glycocyamine kinase (GK), lombricine kinase (LK), taurocyamine kinase (TK), and echinoderm arginine kinase (AK).
238526CRIB_PAK_likecd01093PAK (p21 activated kinase) Binding Domain (PBD), binds Cdc42p- and/or Rho-like small GTPases; also known as the Cdc42/Rac interactive binding (CRIB) motif; has been shown to inhibit transcriptional activation and cell transformation mediated by the Ras-Rac pathway. This subgroup of CRIB/PBD-domains is found N-terminal of Serine/Threonine kinase domains in PAK and PAK-like proteins.
145726Cu_amine_oxidN2pfam02727Copper amine oxidase, N2 domain. This domain is the first or second structural domain in copper amine oxidases, it is known as the N2 domain. Its function is uncertain. The catalytic domain can be found in pfam01179. Copper amine oxidases are a ubiquitous and novel group of quinoenzymes that catalyze the oxidative deamination of primary amines to the corresponding aldehydes, with concomitant reduction of molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. The enzymes are dimers of identical 70-90 kDa subunits, each of which contains a single copper ion and a covalently bound cofactor formed by the post-translational modification of a tyrosine side chain to 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone (TPQ).
202361Cu_amine_oxidN3pfam02728Copper amine oxidase, N3 domain. This domain is the second or third structural domain in copper amine oxidases, it is known as the N3 domain. Its function is uncertain. The catalytic domain can be found in pfam01179. Copper amine oxidases are a ubiquitous and novel group of quinoenzymes that catalyze the oxidative deamination of primary amines to the corresponding aldehydes, with concomitant reduction of molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. The enzymes are dimers of identical 70-90 kDa subunits, each of which contains a single copper ion and a covalently bound cofactor formed by the post-translational modification of a tyrosine side chain to 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone (TPQ).
239666CysN_NodQ_IIcd03695CysN_NodQ_II: This subfamily represents the domain II of the large subunit of ATP sulfurylase (ATPS): CysN or the N-terminal portion of NodQ, found mainly in proteobacteria and homologous to the domain II of EF-Tu. Escherichia coli ATPS consists of CysN and a smaller subunit CysD and CysN. ATPS produces adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) from ATP and sulfate, coupled with GTP hydrolysis. In the subsequent reaction APS is phosphorylated by an APS kinase (CysC), to produce 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) for use in amino acid (aa) biosynthesis. The Rhizobiaceae group (alpha-proteobacteria) appears to carry out the same chemistry for the sufation of a nodulation factor. In Rhizobium meliloti, a the hererodimeric complex comprised of NodP and NodQ appears to possess both ATPS and APS kinase activities. The N and C termini of NodQ correspond to CysN and CysC, respectively. Other eubacteria, Archaea, and eukaryotes use a different ATP sulfurylase, which shows no aa sequence similarity to CysN or NodQ. CysN and the N-terminal portion of NodQ show similarity to GTPases involved in translation, in particular, EF-Tu and EF-1alpha.
239762CysN_NoDQ_IIIcd04095TCysN_NoDQ_II: This subfamily represents the domain II of the large subunit of ATP sulfurylase (ATPS): CysN or the N-terminal portion of NodQ, found mainly in proteobacteria and homologous to the domain II of EF-Tu. Escherichia coli ATPS consists of CysN and a smaller subunit CysD and CysN. ATPS produces adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) from ATP and sulfate, coupled with GTP hydrolysis. In the subsequent reaction APS is phosphorylated by an APS kinase (CysC), to produce 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) for use in amino acid (aa) biosynthesis. The Rhizobiaceae group (alpha-proteobacteria) appears to carry out the same chemistry for the sufation of a nodulation factor. In Rhizobium meliloti, a the hererodimeric complex comprised of NodP and NodQ appears to possess both ATPS and APS kinase activities. The N and C termini of NodQ correspond to CysN and CysC, respectively. Other eubacteria, Archaea, and eukaryotes use a different ATP sulfurylase, which shows no aa sequence similarity to CysN or NodQ. CysN and the N-terminal portion of NodQ show similarity to GTPases involved in translation, in particular, EF-Tu and EF-1alpha.
176732Death_ankcd08317Death domain associated with Ankyrins. Death Domain (DD) associated with Ankyrins. Ankyrins are modular proteins comprising three conserved domains, an N-terminal membrane-binding domain containing ANK repeats, a spectrin-binding domain and a C-terminal DD. Ankyrins function as adaptor proteins and they interact, through ANK repeats, with structurally diverse membrane proteins, including ion channels/pumps, calcium release channels, and cell adhesion molecules. They play critical roles in the proper expression and membrane localization of these proteins. In mammals, this family includes ankyrin-R for restricted (or ANK1), ankyrin-B for broadly expressed (or ANK2) and ankyrin-G for general or giant (or ANK3). They are expressed in different combinations in many tissues and play non-overlapping functions. In general, DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain), DED (Death Effector Domain), and PYRIN. They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176783Death_ank1cd08805Death domain of Ankyrin-1. Death Domain (DD) of the human protein ankyrin-1 (ANK-1) and related proteins. Ankyrins are modular proteins comprising three conserved domains, an N-terminal membrane-binding domain containing ANK repeats, a spectrin-binding domain and a C-terminal DD. ANK-1, also called ankyrin-R (for restricted), is found in brain, muscle, and erythrocytes and is thought to function in linking integral membrane proteins to the underlying cytoskeleton. It plays a critical nonredundant role in erythroid development and is associated with hereditary spherocytosis (HS), a common disorder of the red cell membrane. The small alternatively-spliced variant, sANK-1, found in striated muscle and concentrated in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) binds obscurin and titin, which facilitates the anchoring of the network SR to the contractile apparatus. In general, DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain), DED (Death Effector Domain), and PYRIN. They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176762Death_DRscd08784Death Domain of Death Receptors. Death domain (DD) found in death receptor proteins. Death receptors are members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, characterized by having a cytoplasmic DD. Known members of the family are Fas (CD95/APO-1), TNF-receptor 1 (TNFR1/TNFRSF1A/p55/CD120a), TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 1 (TRAIL-R1 /DR4), and receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2/DR5/APO-2/KILLER), as well as Death Receptor 3 (DR3/APO-3/TRAMP/WSL-1/LARD). They are involved in apoptosis signaling pathways. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain), DED (Death Effector Domain), and PYRIN. They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176722Death_FADDcd08306Fas-associated Death Domain protein-protein interaction domain. Death domain (DD) found in FAS-associated via death domain (FADD). FADD is a component of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) and serves as an adaptor in the signaling pathway of death receptor proteins. It modulates apoptosis as well as non-apoptotic processes such as cell cycle progression, survival, innate immune signaling, and hematopoiesis. FADD contains an N-terminal DED and a C-terminal DD. Its DD interacts with the DD of the activated death receptor, FAS, and its DED recruits the initiator caspases, caspase-8 and -10, to the DISC complex via a homotypic interaction with the N-terminal DED of the caspase. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain), DED (Death Effector Domain), and PYRIN. They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and they can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176731Death_FAS_TNFRSF6cd08316Death domain of FAS or TNF receptor superfamily member 6. Death Domain (DD) found in the FS7-associated cell surface antigen (FAS). FAS, also known as TNFRSF6 (TNF receptor superfamily member 6), APT1, CD95, FAS1, or APO-1, together with FADD (Fas-associating via Death Domain) and caspase 8, is an integral part of the death inducing signalling complex (DISC), which plays an important role in the induction of apoptosis and is activated by binding of the ligand FasL to FAS. FAS also plays a critical role in self-tolerance by eliminating cell types (autoreactive T and B cells) that contribute to autoimmunity. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain), DED (Death Effector Domain), and PYRIN. They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176771Death_IRAK4cd08793Death domain of Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 4. Death Domain (DD) of Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 4 (IRAK4). IRAKs are essential components of innate immunity and inflammation in mammals and other vertebrates. They are involved in signal transduction pathways involving IL-1 and IL-18 receptors, Toll-like receptors, nuclear factor-kappaB, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. IRAKs contain an N-terminal DD domain and a C-terminal kinase domain. IRAK4 is an active kinase that is also involved in T-cell receptor signaling pathways, implying that it may function in acquired immunity and not just in innate immunity. It is known as the master IRAK member because its absence strongly impairs TLR- and IL-1-mediated signaling and innate immune defenses, while the absence of other IRAK proteins only shows slight effects. IRAK4-deficient patients have impaired inflammatory responses and recurrent life-threatening infections. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain), DED (Death Effector Domain), and PYRIN. They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176726Death_NFkB-likecd08310Death domain of Nuclear Factor-KappaB precursor proteins. Death Domain (DD) of Nuclear Factor-KappaB (NF-kB) precursor proteins. The NF-kB family of transcription factors play a central role in cardiovascular growth, stress response, and inflammation by controlling the expression of a network of different genes. There are five NF-kB proteins, all containing an N-terminal REL Homology Domain (RHD). Two of these, NF-kB1 and NF-kB2 are produced from the processing of the precursor proteins p105 and p100, respectively. In addition to RHD, p105 and p100 contain ANK repeats and a C-terminal DD. NF-kBs are regulated by the Inhibitor of NF-kB (IkB) Kinase (IKK) complex through classical and non-canonical pathways, which differ in the IKK subunits involved and downstream targets. IKKs facilitate the release of NF-kB dimers from an inactive state, allowing them to migrate to the nucleus where they regulate gene transcription. The precursor proteins p105 and p100 function as IkBs and as NF-kB proteins after being processed by the proteasome. In general, DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain), DED (Death Effector Domain), and PYRIN. They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176775Death_NFkB1_p105cd08797Death domain of the Nuclear Factor-KappaB1 precursor protein p105. Death Domain (DD) of the Nuclear Factor-KappaB1 (NF-kB1) precursor protein p105. The NF-kB family of transcription factors play a central role in cardiovascular growth, stress response, and inflammation by controlling the expression of a network of different genes. There are five NF-kB proteins, all containing an N-terminal REL Homology Domain (RHD). NF-kB1 (or p50) is produced from the processing of the precursor protein p105, which contains ANK repeats and a C-terminal DD in addition to the RHD. It is regulated by the classical (or canonical) NF-kB pathway. In the cytosol, p50 forms an inactive complex with RelA (or p65) and the Inhibitor of NF-kB (IkB). Activation is triggered by the phosphorylation and degradation of IkB, resulting in the active DNA-binding p50-RelA dimer to migrate to the nucleus. The classical pathway regulates the majority of genes activated by NF-kB including those encoding cytokines, chemokines, leukocyte adhesion molecules, and anti-apoptotic factors. In general, DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain), DED (Death Effector Domain), and PYRIN. They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176776Death_NFkB2_p100cd08798Death domain of the Nuclear Factor-KappaB2 precursor protein p100. Death Domain (DD) of the Nuclear Factor-KappaB2 (NF-kB2) precursor protein p100. The NF-kB family of transcription factors play a central role in cardiovascular growth, stress response, and inflammation by controlling the expression of a network of different genes. There are five NF-kB proteins, all containing an N-terminal REL Homology Domain (RHD). NF-kB2 (or p52) is produced from the processing of the precursor protein p100, which contains ANK repeats and a C-terminal DD in addition to the RHD. It is regulated by the non-canonical NF-kB pathway. The p100 precursor is cytosolic and interacts with RelB. Upon phosphorylation by IKKalpha, p100 is processed to its 52kDa active, DNA binding form and the p52/RelB complex is translocated into the nucleus. The non-canonical pathway plays a role in adaptive immunity and lymphorganogenesis. In general, DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain), DED (Death Effector Domain), and PYRIN. They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176733Death_NMPP84cd08318Death domain of Nuclear Matrix Protein P84. Death domain (DD) found in the Nuclear Matrix Protein P84 (also known as HPR1 or THOC1). HPR1/p84 resides in the nuclear matrix and is part of the THO complex, also called TREX (transcription/export) complex, which functions in mRNP biogenesis at the interface between transcription and export of mRNA from the nucleus. Mice lacking THOC1 have abnormal testis development and are sterile. In general, DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain), DED (Death Effector Domain), and PYRIN. They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176723Death_Pellecd08307Death domain of the protein kinase Pelle. Death domain (DD) of the protein kinase Pelle from Drosophila melanogaster and simlar proteins. In Drosophila, interaction between the DDs of Tube and Pelle is an important component of the Toll pathway, which functions in establishing dorsoventral polarity in embryos and in mediating innate immune responses to pathogens. Tube and Pelle transmit the signal from the Toll receptor to the Dorsal/Cactus complex. Pelle also functions in photoreceptor axon targeting. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain), DED (Death Effector Domain), and PYRIN. They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176734Death_RAIDDcd08319Death domain of RIP-associated ICH-1 homologous protein with a death domain. Death domain (DD) of RAIDD (RIP-associated ICH-1 homologous protein with a death domain), also known as CRADD (Caspase and RIP adaptor). RAIDD is an adaptor protein that together with the p53-inducible protein PIDD and caspase-2, forms the PIDDosome complex, which is required for caspase-2 activation and plays a role in mediating stress-induced apoptosis. RAIDD contains an N-terminal Caspase Activation and Recruitment Domain (CARD), which interacts with the caspase-2 CARD, and a C-terminal DD, which interacts with the DD of PIDD. In general, DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including CARD, DED (Death Effector Domain), and PYRIN. They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176755Death_RIP1cd08777Death Domain of Receptor-Interacting Protein 1. Death domain (DD) found in Receptor-Interacting Protein 1 (RIP1) and related proteins. RIP kinases serve as essential sensors of cellular stress. Vertebrates contain several types containing a homologous N-terminal kinase domain and varying C-terminal domains. RIP1 harbors a C-terminal DD, which binds death receptors (DRs) including TNF receptor 1, Fas, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 1 (TRAILR1), and TRAILR2. It also interacts with other DD-containing adaptor proteins such as TRADD and FADD. RIP1 plays a crucial role in determining a cell's fate, between survival or death, following exposure to stress signals. It is important in the signaling of NF-kappaB and MAPKs, and it links DR-associated signaling to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Abnormal RIP1 function may result in ROS accumulation affecting inflammatory responses, innate immunity, stress responses, and cell survival. In general, DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain), DED (Death Effector Domain), and PYRIN. They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176793Death_TNFRSF25_DR3cd08815Death domain of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor superfamily 25. Death Domain (DD) found in Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) receptor superfamily 25 (TNFRSF25), also known as TRAMP (TNF receptor-related apoptosis-mediating protein), LARD, APO-3, WSL-1, or DR3 (Death Receptor-3). TNFRSF25 is primarily expressed in T cells, is activated by binding to its ligand TL1A, and plays an important role in T-cell function. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain), DED (Death Effector Domain), and PYRIN. They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176758Death_TRADDcd08780Death Domain of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1-Associated Death Domain protein. Death domain (DD) of TRADD (TNF Receptor 1-Associated Death Domain or TNFRSF1A-associated via death domain) protein. TRADD is a central signaling adaptor for TNF-receptor 1 (TNFR1), mediating activation of Nuclear Factor -kappaB (NF-kB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), as well as caspase-dependent apoptosis. It also carries important immunological roles including germinal center formation, DR3-mediated T-cell stimulation, and TNFalpha-mediated inflammatory responses. In general, DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain), DED (Death Effector Domain), and PYRIN. They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176730Death_TRAILR_DR4_DR5cd08315Death domain of Tumor necrosis factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand Receptors. Death Domain (DD) found in Tumor necrosis factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) Receptors. In mammals, this family includes TRAILR1 (also called DR4 or TNFRSF10A) and TRAILR2 (also called DR5, TNFRSF10B, or KILLER). They function as receptors for the cytokine TRAIL and are involved in apoptosis signaling pathways. TRAIL preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells while exhibiting little toxicity in normal cells. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain), DED (Death Effector Domain), and PYRIN. They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176724Death_Tubecd08308Death domain of Tube. Death domains (DDs) similar to the DD in the protein Tube from Drosophila melanogaster. In Drosophila, interaction between the DDs of Tube and Pelle is an important component of the Toll pathway, which functions in establishing dorsoventral polarity in embryos and also in mediating innate immune response to pathogens. Tube and Pelle transmit the signal from the Toll receptor to the Dorsal/Cactus complex. Some members of this subfamily contain a C-terminal kinase domain, like Pelle, in addition to the DD. Tube has no counterpart in vertebrates. It contains an N-terminal DD and a C-terminal region with five copies of the Tube repeat, an 8-amino acid motif. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain), DED (Death Effector Domain), and PYRIN. They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176759Death_UNC5-likecd08781Death domain found in Uncoordinated-5 homolog family. Death Domain (DD) found in Uncoordinated-5 (UNC-5) homolog family, which includes Unc5A, B, C and D in vertebrates. UNC5 proteins are receptors for secreted netrins (netrin-1, -3 and -4) that are involved in diverse processes like axonal guidance, neuronal migration, blood vessel patterning, and apoptosis. They are transmembrane proteins with an extracellular domain consisting of two immunoglobulin repeats, two thrombospondin type-I modules and an intracellular region containing a ZU-5 domain, UPA domain and a DD. In general, DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain), DED (Death Effector Domain), and PYRIN. They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176778Death_UNC5Acd08800Death domain found in Uncoordinated-5A. Death Domain (DD) found in Uncoordinated-5A (UNC5A). UNC5A is part of the UNC-5 homolog family. It is a receptor for the secreted netrin-1 and plays a critical role in neuronal development and differentiation, as well as axon-guidance. It also plays a role in regulating apoptosis in non-neuronal cells as a downstream target of p53. UNC5 proteins are transmembrane proteins with an extracellular domain consisting of two immunoglobulin repeats, two thrombospondin type-I modules and an intracellular region containing a ZU-5 domain, UPA domain and a DD. In general, DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain), DED (Death Effector Domain), and PYRIN. They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176780Death_UNC5Bcd08802Death domain found in Uncoordinated-5B. Death Domain (DD) found in Uncoordinated-5B (UNC5B). UNC5B is part of the UNC-5 homolog family. It is a receptor for the secreted netrin-1 and plays a role in axonal guidance, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. UNC5B signaling is involved in the netrin-1-induced proliferation and migration of renal proximal tubular cells. It is also required for vascular patterning during embryonic development, and its activation inhibits sprouting angiogenesis. UNC5 proteins are transmembrane proteins with an extracellular domain consisting of two immunoglobulin repeats, two thrombospondin type-I modules and an intracellular region containing a ZU-5 domain, UPA domain and a DD. In general, DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain), DED (Death Effector Domain), and PYRIN. They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176777Death_UNC5Ccd08799Death domain found in Uncoordinated-5C. Death Domain (DD) found in Uncoordinated-5C (UNC5C). UNC5C is part of the UNC-5 homolog family. It is a receptor for the secreted netrin-1 and plays a role in axonal guidance, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. UNC5C plays a critical role in the development of spinal accesory motor neurons. Methylation of the UNC5C gene is associated with early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis. UNC5 proteins are transmembrane proteins with an extracellular domain consisting of two immunoglobulin repeats, two thrombospondin type-I modules and an intracellular region containing a ZU-5 domain, UPA domain and a DD. In general, DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain), DED (Death Effector Domain), and PYRIN. They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176779Death_UNC5Dcd08801Death domain found in Uncoordinated-5D. Death Domain (DD) found in Uncoordinated-5D (UNC5D). UNC5D is part of the UNC-5 homolog family. It is a receptor for the secreted netrin-1 and plays a role in axonal guidance, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. UNC5 proteins are transmembrane proteins with an extracellular domain consisting of two immunoglobulin repeats, two thrombospondin type-I modules and an intracellular region containing a ZU-5 domain, UPA domain and a DD. In general, DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain), DED (Death Effector Domain), and PYRIN. They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176717DEDcd00045The Death Effector Domain: a protein-protein interaction domain. Death Effector Domains comprise a subfamily of the Death Domain (DD) superfamily. DED-containing proteins include Fas-Associated via Death Domain (FADD), Astrocyte phosphoprotein PEA-15, the initiator caspases (caspase-8 and -10), and FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP), among others. These proteins are prominent components of the programmed cell death (apoptosis) pathway. Some members also have non-apoptotic functions such as regulation of insulin signaling (DEDD and PEA15) and cell cycle progression (DEDD). DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and they can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176748DED_c-FLIP_repeat1cd08337Death Effector Domain, repeat 1, of cellular FLICE-Inhibitory Protein. Death Effector Domain (DED), repeat 1, similar to that found in FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP/CASH, also known as Casper/iFLICE/FLAME-1/CLARP/MRIT/usurpin). c-FLIP is a catalytically inactive homolog of the initator procaspases-8 and -10. It negatively influences apoptotic signaling by interfering with the efficient formation of the Death Inducing Signalling Complex (DISC). At low levels, c-FLIP has been shown to enhance apoptotic signaling by allosterically activating caspase-8. As a modulator of the initiator caspases, c-FLIP regulates life and death in various types of cells and tissues. All members contain two N-terminal DEDs and a C-terminal pseudo-caspase domain. DEDs comprise a subfamily of the Death Domain (DD) superfamily. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176751DED_c-FLIP_repeat2cd08340Death Effector Domain, repeat 2, of cellular FLICE-Inhibitory Protein. Death Effector Domain (DED), repeat 2, similar to that found in cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP/CASH, also known as Casper/iFLICE/FLAME-1/CLARP/MRIT/usurpin). c-FLIP is a catalytically inactive homolog of the initator procaspases-8 and -10. It negatively influences apoptotic signaling by interfering with the efficient formation of the Death Inducing Signalling Complex (DISC). At low levels, c-FLIP has been shown to enhance apoptotic signaling by allosterically activating caspase-8. As a modulator of the initiator caspases, c-FLIP regulates life and death in various types of cells and tissues. All members contain two N-terminal DEDs and a C-terminal pseudo-caspase domain. DEDs comprise a subfamily of the Death Domain (DD) superfamily. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176745DED_Caspase_8_repeatcd08333Death effector domain, repeat 1, of Caspase-8. Death effector domain (DED) found in caspase-8 (CASP8, FLICE), repeat 1. Caspases are aspartate-specific cysteine proteases with functions in apoptosis and immune signaling. Initiator caspases are the first to be activated following death- or inflammation-inducing signals. Caspase-8 is an initiator of death receptor mediated apoptosis. Together with FADD, caspase-10, and the pseudo-caspase c-FLIP, it forms the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), whose formation is triggered by the activation of type 1 tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors such as Fas, TNF receptor 1, and TRAIL receptor. Caspase-8 also plays many important non-apoptotic functions including roles in embryonic development, cell adhesion and motility, immune cell proliferation and differentiation, T-cell activation, and NFkappaB signaling. It contains two N-terminal DED domains and a C-terminal caspase domain. DEDs comprise a subfamily of the Death Domain (DD) superfamily. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176791DED_Caspase_8_repeatcd08813Death Effector Domain, repeat 2, of Caspase-8. Death effector domain (DED) found in caspase-8 (CASP8, FLICE), repeat 2. Caspases are aspartate-specific cysteine proteases with functions in apoptosis and immune signaling. Initiator caspases are the first to be activated following death- or inflammation-inducing signals. Caspase-8 is an initiator of death receptor mediated apoptosis. Together with FADD, caspase-10, and the pseudo-caspase c-FLIP, it forms the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), whose formation is triggered by the activation of type 1 tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors such as Fas, TNF receptor 1, and TRAIL receptor. Caspase-8 also plays many important non-apoptotic functions including roles in embryonic development, cell adhesion and motility, immune cell proliferation and differentiation, T-cell activation, and NFkappaB signaling. It contains two N-terminal DED domains and a C-terminal caspase domain. DEDs comprise a subfamily of the Death Domain (DD) superfamily. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176750DED_DEDD-likecd08339Death Effector Domain of DEDD and DEDD2. Death Effector Domain (DED) found in DEDD and DEDD2. Both proteins have a single N-terminal DED and a long C-terminal portion with no known domains. DEDD has been shown to block mitotic progression by inhibiting Cdk1 and to be involved in regulating the insulin signaling cascade. DEDD and DEDD2 can bind to themselves, to each other, and to the two tandem DED-containing caspases, caspase-8 and -10. In general, DEDs comprise a subfamily of the Death Domain (DD) superfamily. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and they can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176747DED_FADDcd08336Death Effector Domain found in Fas-Associated via Death Domain. Death Effector Domain (DED) found in Fas-Associated via Death Domain (FADD). DEDs comprise a subfamily of the Death Domain (DD) superfamily. FADD is a component of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) and serves as an adaptor in the signaling pathway of death receptor proteins. It modulates apoptosis as well as non-apoptotic processes such as cell cycle progression, survival, innate immune signaling, and hematopoiesis. FADD contains an N-terminal DED and a C-terminal DD. Its DD interacts with the DD of the activated death receptor and its DED recruits the initiator caspases 8 and 10 to the DISC complex via a homotypic interaction with the N-terminal DED of the caspase. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and they can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176749DED_PEA15cd08338Death Effector Domain of Astrocyte phosphoprotein PEA-15. Death Effector Domain (DED) similar to that found in PEA-15 (Astrocyte phosphoprotein PEA-15). PEA-15 is a multifunctional phosphoprotein that modulates signaling pathways, like the ERK MAP kinase cascade by binding to ERK and changing its subcellular localization. It has been implicated in apoptosis, cell proliferation, and glucose metabolism. It does not possess enzymatic activity and mainly acts as an adaptor protein. PEA-15 contains an N-terminal DED domain and a C-terminal disordered region. DEDs comprise a subfamily of the Death Domain (DD) superfamily. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including PYRIN and CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and they can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
204056DEK_Cpfam08766DEK C terminal domain. DEK is a chromatin associated protein that is linked with cancers and autoimmune disease. This domain is found at the C terminal of DEK and is of clinical importance since it can reverse the characteristic abnormal DNA-mutagen sensitivity in fibroblasts from ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) patients. The structure of this domain shows it to be homologous to the E2F/DP transcription factor family. This domain is also found in chitin synthase proteins and in protein phosphatases.
216955DHHA1pfam02272DHHA1 domain. This domain is often found adjacent to the DHH domain pfam01368 and is called DHHA1 for DHH associated domain. This domain is diagnostic of DHH subfamily 1 members. This domains is also found in alanyl tRNA synthetase , suggesting that this domain may have an RNA binding function. The domain is about 60 residues long and contains a conserved GG motif.
216058DnaJ_CXXCXGXGpfam00684DnaJ central domain. The central cysteine-rich (CR) domain of DnaJ proteins contains four repeats of the motif CXXCXGXG where X is any amino acid. The isolated cysteine rich domain folds in zinc dependent fashion. Each set of two repeats binds one unit of zinc. Although this domain has been implicated in substrate binding, no evidence of specific interaction between the isolated DNAJ cysteine rich domain and various hydrophobic peptides has been found.
99896Dnmt3b_relatedcd05835The PWWP domain is an essential component of DNA methyltransferase 3 B (Dnmt3b) which is responsible for establishing DNA methylation patterns during embryogenesis and gametogenesis. In tumorigenesis, DNA methylation by Dnmt3b is known to play a role in the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. In addition, a point mutation in the PWWP domain of Dnmt3b has been identified in patients with ICF syndrome (immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, and facial anomalies), a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypomethylation of classical satellite DNA. The PWWP domain, named for a conserved Pro-Trp-Trp-Pro motif, is a small domain consisting of 100-150 amino acids. The PWWP domain is found in numerous proteins that are involved in cell division, growth and differentiation. Most PWWP-domain proteins seem to be nuclear, often DNA-binding, proteins that function as transcription factors regulating a variety of developmental processes.
217508DOMONpfam03351DOMON domain. The DOMON (named after dopamine beta-monooxygenase N-terminal) domain is 110-125 residues long. It is predicted to form an all beta fold with up to 11 strands and is secreted to the extracellular compartment. The beta-strand folding produces a hydrophobic pocket which appears to bind soluble haem. This is consistent with the predominant architectures where the protein is associated with cytochromes or enzymatic domains whose activity involves redox or electron transfer reactions potentially as a direct participant in the electron transfer process. The DOMON domain superfamily, of which this is just one member, shows (1) multiple hydrophobic residues that contribute to the hydrophobic core of the strands of the beta-sandwich, and small residues found at the boundaries of strands and loops, (2) a strongly conserved charged residue (usually arginine/lysine) at the end of strand 9, which possibly stabilises the loop between 9 and 10, and (3) a polar residue (usually histidine, lysine or arginine), that interacts or coordinates with ligands. The suggested superfamily includes both haem- and sugar-binding members: the haem-binding families being the ethyl-Benzoate dehydrogenase family EB_dh, pfam09459, the cellobiose dehydrogenase family CBDH and this family, and the sugar-binding families being the xylanases, CBM_4_9, pfam02018. The common feature of the superfamily is the 11-beta-strand structure, although the first and eleventh strands are not well conserved either within families or between families.
219000Drf_FH3pfam06367Diaphanous FH3 Domain. This region is found in the Formin-like and and diaphanous proteins.
218976DUF1041pfam06292Domain of Unknown Function (DUF1041). This family consists of several eukaryotic domains of unknown function. Members of this family are often found in tandem repeats and co-occur with pfam00168, pfam00130 and pfam00169 domains.
218992DUF1053pfam06327Domain of Unknown Function (DUF1053). This domain is found in Adenylate cyclases.
219039DUF1086pfam06461Domain of Unknown Function (DUF1086). This family consists of several eukaryotic domains of unknown function which are present in chromodomain helicase DNA binding proteins. This domain is often found in conjunction with pfam00176, pfam00271, pfam06465, pfam00385 and pfam00628.
148844DUF1518pfam07469Domain of unknown function (DUF1518). This domain, which is usually found tandemly repeated, is found various receptor co-activating proteins.
191968DUF1713pfam08213Mitochondrial domain of unknown function (DUF1713). This domain is found at the C terminal end of mitochondrial proteins of unknown function.
219749DUF1716pfam08216Eukaryotic domain of unknown function (DUF1716). This domain is found in eukaryotic proteins. A human nuclear protein with this domain is thought to have a role in apoptosis.
149420DUF1726pfam08351Domain of unknown function (DUF1726). This domain of unknown function is often found at the N-terminus of proteins containing pfam05127. Its fold resembles that of pfam05127, but it does not appear to bind ATP.
203914DUF1731pfam08338Domain of unknown function (DUF1731). This domain of unknown function appears towards the C-terminus of proteins of the NAD dependent epimerase/dehydratase family (pfam01370) in bacteria, eukaryotes and archaea. Many of the proteins in which it is found are involved in cell-division inhibition.
149463DUF1736pfam08409Domain of unknown function (DUF1736). This domain of unknown function is found in various hypothetical metazoan proteins.
219863DUF1744pfam08490Domain of unknown function (DUF1744). This domain is found on the epsilon catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase. It is found C terminal to pfam03104 and pfam00136.
219918DUF1767pfam08585Domain of unknown function (DUF1767). Eukaryotic domain of unknown function. This domain is found to the N-terminus of the nucleic acid binding domain.
117164DUF1771pfam08590Domain of unknown function (DUF1771). This domain is always found adjacent to pfam01713.
117549DUF1856pfam08983Domain of unknown function (DUF1856). This domain has no known function. It is found in the C-terminal segment of various vasopressin receptors.
117519DUF1866pfam08952Domain of unknown function (DUF1866). This domain, found in Synaptojanin, has no known function.
220081DUF1872pfam08959Domain of unknown function (DUF1872). The CS domain, found in Ubiquitin specific peptidase 19 (USP-19), has no known function.
117535DUF1873pfam08969Domain of unknown function (DUF1873). This domain is predominantly found in the amino terminal region of Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 8 (USP8). It has no known function.
117527DUF1875pfam08961Domain of unknown function (DUF1875). The MIT domain, found in Nuclear receptor-binding factor 2, has no known function.
150006DUF1879pfam09170Domain of unknown function (DUF1879). This domain is found in a set of hypothetical eukaryotic proteins, as well as in oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding fold-containing protein-1.
117542DUF1880pfam08976Domain of unknown function (DUF1880). This domain is found predominantly in DJ binding protein. It has no known function.
117570DUF1891pfam09004Domain of unknown function (DUF1891). This domain is found in a set of hypothetical eukaryotic proteins.
149918DUF1897pfam09005Domain of unknown function (DUF1897). This domain is found in Psi proteins produced by Drosophila, and in various eukaryotic hypothetical proteins. It has no known function.
204115DUF1898pfam09011Domain of unknown function (DUF1898). This domain is predominantly found in Maelstrom homolog proteins. It has no known function.
149883DUF1899pfam08953Domain of unknown function (DUF1899). This set of domains is found in various eukaryotic proteins. Function is unknown.
220080DUF1900pfam08954Domain of unknown function (DUF1900). This domain is predominantly found in the structural protein coronin, and is duplicated in some sequences. It has no known function.
204097DUF1908pfam08926Domain of unknown function (DUF1908). This domain is found in a set of hypothetical/structural eukaryotic proteins.
220077DUF1916pfam08938Domain of unknown function (DUF1916). This domain is found in various eukaryotic HBS1-like proteins.
220078DUF1917pfam08939Domain of unknown function (DUF1917). This domain is found in various hypothetical and basophilic leukaemia proteins. It has no known function.
150094DUF1973pfam09315Domain of unknown function (DUF1973). Members of his family of functionally uncharacterized domains are found in various eukaryotic calcium-dependent chloride channels.
150099DUF1977pfam09320Domain of unknown function (DUF1977). Members of this family of functionally uncharacterized domains are predominantly found in dnaj-like proteins.
204198DUF1981pfam09324Domain of unknown function (DUF1981). Members of this family of functionally uncharacterized domains are found in various plant and yeast protein transport proteins.
204199DUF1982pfam09326Domain of unknown function (DUF1982). Members of this family of functionally uncharacterized domains are found in the C-terminal region of various prokaryotic NADH dehydrogenases.
216595DUF21pfam01595Domain of unknown function DUF21. This transmembrane region has no known function. Many of the sequences in this family are annotated as hemolysins, however this is due to a similarity to Treponema hyodysenteriae hemolysin C that does not contain this domain. This domain is found in the N-terminus of the proteins adjacent to two intracellular CBS domains pfam00571.
204440DUF2411pfam10304Domain of unknown function (DUF2411). This is a 38 residue domain that is found in proteins at the extreme C-terminal end of some HEAT repeats Pfam: PF02985. the function of this domain is not known.
220711DUF2431pfam10354Domain of unknown function (DUF2431). This is the N-terminal domain of a family of proteins found from plants to humans. The function is not known.
220772DUF2450pfam10475Protein of unknown function N-terminal domain (DUF2450). This protein is found in eukaryotes but its function is not known. The C-terminal part of some members is DUF2451.
152266DUF3350pfam11830Domain of unknown function (DUF3350). This domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This presumed domain is typically between 50 to 64 amino acids in length.
221253DUF3354pfam11834Domain of unknown function (DUF3354). This domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This presumed domain is about 60 amino acids in length.
221258DUF3361pfam11841Domain of unknown function (DUF3361). This domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This presumed domain is typically between 154 to 168 amino acids in length.
221266DUF3371pfam11851Domain of unknown function (DUF3371). This domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This presumed domain is typically between 125 to 142 amino acids in length.
221272DUF3377pfam11857Domain of unknown function (DUF3377). This domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This presumed domain is about 70 amino acids in length.
221275DUF3381pfam11861Domain of unknown function (DUF3381). This domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This presumed domain is typically between 156 to 174 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam07780, pfam01728.
221278DUF3384pfam11864Domain of unknown function (DUF3384). This domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This presumed domain is typically between 422 to 486 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam02145.
204764DUF3385pfam11865Domain of unknown function (DUF3385). This domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This presumed domain is typically between 160 to 172 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam00454, pfam02260, pfam02985, pfam02259 and pfam08771.
221283DUF3395pfam11875Domain of unknown function (DUF3395). This domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This presumed domain is typically between 147 to 176 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam00226.
221285DUF3398pfam11878Domain of unknown function (DUF3398). This domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This presumed domain is about 100 amino acids in length.
221286DUF3399pfam11879Domain of unknown function (DUF3399). This domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This presumed domain is about 100 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam02214, pfam00520.
221287DUF3401pfam11881Domain of unknown function (DUF3401). This domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This presumed domain is typically between 231 to 250 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam02145, pfam00595.
221288DUF3402pfam11882Domain of unknown function (DUF3402). This domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This presumed domain is typically between 350 to 473 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam07923.
152349DUF3432pfam11914Domain of unknown function (DUF3432). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is about 100 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam00096. This domain has two conserved sequence motifs: YPSPV and PSP.
152353DUF3436pfam11918Domain of unknown function (DUF3436). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is about 50 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam03572. This domain has two conserved sequence motifs: DPRL and SYEP.
152354DUF3437pfam11919Domain of unknown function (DUF3437). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is typically between 142 to 163 amino acids in length.
221316DUF3441pfam11923Domain of unknown function (DUF3441). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in archaea and eukaryotes. This domain is typically between 104 to 119 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam05833, pfam05670. This domain has two conserved residues (P and G) that may be functionally important.
221321DUF3446pfam11928Domain of unknown function (DUF3446). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is typically between 80 to 99 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam00096. This domain has a single completely conserved residue P that may be functionally important.
221322DUF3448pfam11930Domain of unknown function (DUF3448). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. This domain is about 80 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam00501. This domain has a conserved DRH sequence motif. This domain has two completely conserved residues (N and A) that may be functionally important.
221323DUF3449pfam11931Domain of unknown function (DUF3449). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is typically between 181 to 207 amino acids in length. This domain has two conserved sequence motifs: PIP and CEICG. The domain carries a zinc-finger domain of the C2H2-type.
221324DUF3451pfam11933Domain of unknown function (DUF3451). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is typically between 199 to 238 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam06512, pfam00520. This domain has a conserved ADD sequence motif.
221325DUF3452pfam11934Domain of unknown function (DUF3452). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in bacteria and eukaryotes. This domain is typically between 124 to 150 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam01858, pfam01857. This domain has a single completely conserved residue W that may be functionally important.
221326DUF3453pfam11935Domain of unknown function (DUF3453). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is typically between 239 to 261 amino acids in length.
221327DUF3454pfam11936Domain of unknown function (DUF3454). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is about 60 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam00066, pfam00008, pfam06816, pfam07684, pfam00023.
221354DUF3480pfam11979Domain of unknown function (DUF3480). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is typically between 350 to 362 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam01363.
152415DUF3481pfam11980Domain of unknown function (DUF3481). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is about 80 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam00754, pfam00431, pfam00629. This domain has two completely conserved residues (Y and E) that may be functionally important.
192910DUF3496pfam12001Domain of unknown function (DUF3496). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is about 110 amino acids in length.
221370DUF3497pfam12003Domain of unknown function (DUF3497). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is typically between 213 to 257 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam02793, pfam00002, pfam01825. This domain has a single completely conserved residue W that may be functionally important.
221371DUF3498pfam12004Domain of unknown function (DUF3498). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is typically between 433 to 538 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam00616, pfam00168. This domain has two conserved sequence motifs: DLQ and PLSFQNP.
221377DUF3504pfam12012Domain of unknown function (DUF3504). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is typically between 156 to 173 amino acids in length.
221381DUF3508pfam12018Domain of unknown function (DUF3508). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is about 280 amino acids in length. This domain has two conserved sequence motifs: GFC and GLL. This family is also known as UPF0704.
221383DUF3510pfam12022Domain of unknown function (DUF3510). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is about 130 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam06148.
152459DUF3512pfam12024Domain of unknown function (DUF3512). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is typically between 231 to 249 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam00439.
204811DUF3513pfam12026Domain of unknown function (DUF3513). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is typically between 192 to 218 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam00018, pfam08824. This domain has a conserved QPP sequence motif.
152466DUF3518pfam12031Domain of unknown function (DUF3518). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is about 260 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam01388.
221389DUF3523pfam12037Domain of unknown function (DUF3523). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is typically between 257 to 277 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam00004. This domain has a conserved LER sequence motif.
152473DUF3524pfam12038Domain of unknown function (DUF3524). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in bacteria and eukaryotes. This domain is about 170 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam00534. This domain has two conserved sequence motifs: HENQ and FNS. This domain has a single completely conserved residue S that may be functionally important.
152488DUF3534pfam12053Domain of unknown function (DUF3534). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is about 150 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam00595. This domain has a conserved GILD sequence motif.
221397DUF3535pfam12054Domain of unknown function (DUF3535). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is typically between 439 to 459 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam00271, pfam02985, pfam00176. This domain has two completely conserved residues (P and K) that may be functionally important.
152492DUF3538pfam12057Domain of unknown function (DUF3538). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is about 120 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam00240. This domain has a conserved SDL sequence motif.
221402DUF3543pfam12063Domain of unknown function (DUF3543). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is typically between 217 to 291 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam00069. This domain has a single completely conserved residue A that may be functionally important.
221403DUF3544pfam12064Domain of unknown function (DUF3544). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is typically between 198 to 216 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam00628, pfam01753, pfam00439, pfam00855.
192930DUF3546pfam12066Domain of unknown function (DUF3546). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is typically between 93 to 114 amino acids in length. This domain has two completely conserved Y residues that may be functionally important.
192931DUF3548pfam12068Domain of unknown function (DUF3548). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is typically between 184 to 216 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam00566. This domain is found at the N-terminus of GYP7 proteins.
221409DUF3554pfam12074Domain of unknown function (DUF3554). This presumed domain is functionally uncharacterized. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is typically between 287 to 356 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam02985.
152561DUF3583pfam12126Protein of unknown function (DUF3583). This domain is found in eukaryotes, and is typically between 302 and 338 amino acids in length. It is found in association with pfam00097 and pfam00643. Most members are promyelocytic leukemia proteins, and this family lies towards the C-terminus.
221433DUF3585pfam12130Protein of unknown function (DUF3585). This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is typically between 135 and 149 amino acids in length and is found associated with pfam00307.
152583DUF3590pfam12148Protein of unknown function (DUF3590). This domain is found in eukaryotes, and is typically between 83 and 97 amino acids in length. It is found in association with pfam00097, pfam02182, pfam00628, pfam00240. There are two conserved sequence motifs: RAR and NYN. The domain is part of the protein NIRF which has zinc finger and ubiquitinating domains. The function of this domain is likely to be mainly structural, however this has not been confirmed.
221445DUF3591pfam12157Protein of unknown function (DUF3591). This domain is found in eukaryotes and is typically between 445 to 462 amino acids in length. Most members are annotated as being transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 1, and this region is the conserved central portion of these proteins.
221494DUF3608pfam12257Protein of unknown function (DUF3608). This domain family is found in eukaryotes, and is approximately 280 amino acids in length. The family is found in association with pfam00610.
204888DUF3639pfam12341Protein of unknown function (DUF3639). This domain family is found in eukaryotes, and is approximately 30 amino acids in length. The family is found in association with pfam00400. There are two completely conserved residues (E and R) that may be functionally important.
204895DUF3651pfam12371Protein of unknown function (DUF3651). This domain family is found in eukaryotes, and is approximately 70 amino acids in length. This family is frequently annotated as a membrane protein but there is little associated literature to back this up.
221557DUF3657pfam12394Protein of unknown function (DUF3657). This domain family is found in eukaryotes, and is approximately 60 amino acids in length. The family is found in association with pfam05057.
221574DUF3677pfam12432Protein of unknown function (DUF3677). This domain family is found in eukaryotes, and is approximately 80 amino acids in length.
152914DUF3699pfam12480Protein of unknown function (DUF3699). This domain family is found in eukaryotes, and is approximately 80 amino acids in length.
221612DUF3715pfam12509Protein of unknown function (DUF3715). This domain family is found in eukaryotes, and is approximately 170 amino acids in length.
221616DUF3719pfam12516Protein of unknown function (DUF3719). This domain family is found in eukaryotes, and is approximately 70 amino acids in length. There is a conserved HLR sequence motif. There are two completely conserved residues (W and H) that may be functionally important.
221622DUF3730pfam12530Protein of unknown function (DUF3730). This domain family is found in eukaryotes, and is typically between 220 and 262 amino acids in length.
221626DUF3735pfam12537Protein of unknown function (DUF3735). This domain family is found in eukaryotes, and is approximately 70 amino acids in length. There is a conserved LSG sequence motif. There is a single completely conserved residue G that may be functionally important.
221628DUF3736pfam12540Protein of unknown function (DUF3736). This domain family is found in eukaryotes, and is typically between 135 and 160 amino acids in length.
221643DUF3752pfam12572Protein of unknown function (DUF3752). This domain family is found in eukaryotes, and is typically between 140 and 163 amino acids in length.
221645DUF3754pfam12576Protein of unknown function (DUF3754). This domain family is found in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes, and is typically between 135 and 166 amino acids in length. There is a single completely conserved residue P that may be functionally important.
221667DUF3776pfam12618Protein of unknown function (DUF3776). This domain family is found in eukaryotes, and is approximately 100 amino acids in length.
218085DUF498pfam04430Protein of unknown function (DUF498/DUF598). This is a large family of uncharacterized proteins found in all domains of life. The structure shows a novel fold with three beta sheets. A dimeric form is found in the crystal structure. It was suggested that the cleft in between the two monomers might bing nucleic acid.
191424DUF902pfam06001Domain of Unknown Function (DUF902). This domain of unknown function is found in several transcriptional co-activators including the CREB-binding protein, which is an acetyltransferase that acetylates histones, giving a specific tag for transcriptional activation. This short domain is found to the C-terminus of bromodomains. The 40 residue domain contains four conserved cysteines suggesting that it may be stabilised by a zinc ion. In CREB this domain is to the N-terminus of another zinc binding PHD domain.
238838EFG_like_IVcd01680Elongation Factor G-like domain IV. This family includes the translational elongation factor termed EF-2 (for Archaea and Eukarya) and EF-G (for Bacteria), ribosomal protection proteins that mediate tetracycline resistance and, an evolutionarily conserved U5 snRNP-specific protein (U5-116kD). In complex with GTP, EF-G/EF-2 promotes the translocation step of translation. During translocation the peptidyl-tRNA is moved from the A site to the P site of the small subunit of ribosome and the mRNA is shifted one codon relative to the ribosome. It has been shown that EF-G/EF-2_IV domain mimics the shape of anticodon arm of the tRNA in the structurally homologous ternary complex of Petra, EF-Tu (another transcriptional elongation factor) and GTP analog. The tip portion of this domain is found in a position that overlaps the anticodon arm of the A-site tRNA, implying that EF-G/EF-2 displaces the A-site tRNA to the P-site by physical interaction with the anticodon arm.
238010EGFcd00053Epidermal growth factor domain, found in epidermal growth factor (EGF) presents in a large number of proteins, mostly animal; the list of proteins currently known to contain one or more copies of an EGF-like pattern is large and varied; the functional significance of EGF-like domains in what appear to be unrelated proteins is not yet clear; a common feature is that these repeats are found in the extracellular domain of membrane-bound proteins or in proteins known to be secreted (exception: prostaglandin G/H synthase); the domain includes six cysteine residues which have been shown to be involved in disulfide bonds; the main structure is a two-stranded beta-sheet followed by a loop to a C-terminal short two-stranded sheet; Subdomains between the conserved cysteines vary in length; the region between the 5th and 6th cysteine contains two conserved glycines of which at least one is present in most EGF-like domains; a subset of these bind calcium.
238011EGF_CAcd00054Calcium-binding EGF-like domain, present in a large number of membrane-bound and extracellular (mostly animal) proteins. Many of these proteins require calcium for their biological function and calcium-binding sites have been found to be located at the N-terminus of particular EGF-like domains; calcium-binding may be crucial for numerous protein-protein interactions. Six conserved core cysteines form three disulfide bridges as in non calcium-binding EGF domains, whose structures are very similar. EGF_CA can be found in tandem repeat arrangements.
216509ELM2pfam01448ELM2 domain. The ELM2 (Egl-27 and MTA1 homology 2) domain is a small domain of unknown function. It is found in the MTA1 protein that is part of the NuRD complex. The domain is usually found to the N terminus of a myb-like DNA binding domain pfam00249. ELM2 is also found associated with an ARID DNA binding domain pfam01388 in a member from Arabidopsis thaliana. This suggests that ELM2 may also be involved in DNA binding, or perhaps is a protein-protein interaction domain.
240178ETNK_eukcd05157Ethanolamine kinase (ETNK) in eukaryotes. ETNK is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other kinases, such as the typical serine/threonine/tyrosine protein kinases (PKs), RIO kinases, actin-fragmin kinase (AFK), and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). ETNK catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from CTP to ethanolamine (Etn), the first step in the CDP-Etn pathway for the formation of the major phospholipid, phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn). Unlike ChoK, ETNK shows specific activity for its substrate, and displays negligible activity towards N-methylated derivatives of Etn. The Drosophila ETNK is implicated in development and neuronal function. Mammals contain two ETNK proteins, ETNK1 and ETNK2. ETNK1 selectively increases Etn uptake and phosphorylation, as well as PtdEtn synthesis. ETNK2 is found primarily in the liver and reproductive tissues. It plays a critical role in regulating placental hemostasis to support late embryonic development. It may also have a role in testicular maturation.
153078eukaryotic_phosphagecd07931Phosphagen (guanidino) kinases mostly found in eukaryotes. Phosphagen (guanidino) kinases are enzymes that transphosphorylate a high energy phosphoguanidino compound, like phosphocreatine (PCr) in the case of creatine kinase (CK) or phosphoarginine in the case of arginine kinase, which is used as an energy-storage and -transport metabolite, to ADP, thereby creating ATP. The substrate binding site is located in the cleft between the N and C-terminal domains, but most of the catalytic residues are found in the larger C-terminal domain. In higher eukaryotes, CK exists in tissue-specific (muscle, brain), as well as compartment-specific (mitochondrial and cytosolic) isoforms. They are either coupled to glycolysis (cytosolic form) or oxidative phosphorylation (mitochondrial form). Besides CK and AK, the most studied members of this family are also other phosphagen kinases with different substrate specificities, like glycocyamine kinase (GK), lombricine kinase (LK), taurocyamine kinase (TK) and hypotaurocyamine kinase (HTK).
153342F-BAR_NOSTRINcd07658The F-BAR (FES-CIP4 Homology and Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs) domain of Nitric Oxide Synthase TRaffic INducer (NOSTRIN). F-BAR domains are dimerization modules that bind and bend membranes and are found in proteins involved in membrane dynamics and actin reorganization. Nitric Oxide Synthase TRaffic INducer (NOSTRIN) is expressed in endothelial and epithelial cells and is involved in the regulation, trafficking and targeting of endothelial NOS (eNOS). NOSTRIN facilitates the endocytosis of eNOS by coordinating the functions of dynamin and the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP). Increased expression of NOSTRIN may be correlated to preeclampsia. NOSTRIN contains an N-terminal F-BAR domain and a C-terminal SH3 domain. F-BAR domains form banana-shaped dimers with a positively-charged concave surface that binds to negatively-charged lipid membranes. They can induce membrane deformation in the form of long tubules. The F-BAR domain of NOSTRIN is necessary and sufficient for its membrane association and is responsible for its subcellular localization.
153356F-BAR_PSTPIP2cd07672The F-BAR (FES-CIP4 Homology and Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs) domain of Proline-Serine-Threonine Phosphatase-Interacting Protein 2. F-BAR domains are dimerization modules that bind and bend membranes and are found in proteins involved in membrane dynamics and actin reorganization. Proline-Serine-Threonine Phosphatase-Interacting Protein 2 (PSTPIP2), also known as Macrophage Actin-associated tYrosine Phosphorylated protein (MAYP), is mostly expressed in hematopoietic cells but is also expressed in the brain. It is involved in regulating cell adhesion and motility. Mutations in the gene encoding murine PSTPIP2 can cause autoinflammatory disorders such as chronic multifocal osteomyelitis and macrophage autoinflammatory disease. PSTPIP2 contains an N-terminal F-BAR domain and lacks the PEST motifs and SH3 domain that are found in PSTPIP1. F-BAR domains form banana-shaped dimers with a positively-charged concave surface that binds to negatively-charged lipid membranes. They can induce membrane deformation in the form of long tubules.
219809FAST_2pfam08368FAST kinase-like protein, subdomain 2. This family represents a conserved region of eukaryotic Fas-activated serine/threonine (FAST) kinases (EC:2.7.1.-) that contains several conserved leucine residues. FAST kinase is rapidly activated during Fas-mediated apoptosis, when it phosphorylates TIA-1, a nuclear RNA-binding protein that has been implicated as an effector of apoptosis. Note that many family members are hypothetical proteins. This subdomain is often found associated with the FAST kinase-like protein, subdomain 2.
173943Fe-ADH3cd08184Iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenases-like. Iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenase-like. Proteins of this family have not been characterized. Their specific function is unknown. The protein structure represents a dehydroquinate synthase-like fold and is belonged to the iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenase-like superfamily. They are distinct from other alcohol dehydrogenases which contain different protein domains. Alcohol dehydrogenase catalyzes the reduction of acetaldehyde to alcohol with NADP as cofactor. Its activity requires iron or zinc ions. Members of this family are mainly found in bacteria.
238016FHcd00059Forkhead (FH), also known as a "winged helix". FH is named for the Drosophila fork head protein, a transcription factor which promotes terminal rather than segmental development. This family of transcription factor domains, which bind to B-DNA as monomers, are also found in the Hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) proteins, which provide tissue-specific gene regulation. The structure contains 2 flexible loops or "wings" in the C-terminal region, hence the term winged helix.
221447Fibrinogen_aCpfam12160Fibrinogen alpha C domain. This domain family is found in eukaryotes, and is approximately 70 amino acids in length, and the family is found in association with pfam08702. This domain is the C terminal domain of fibrinogen in mammals. The domain lies in the C terminal half of the alpha C region in these proteins. The function of the domain is that of intramolecular and intermolecular interactions to form fibrin.
218351FTCD_Cpfam04961Formiminotransferase-cyclodeaminase. Members of this family are thought to be Formiminotransferase- cyclodeaminase enzymes EC:4.3.1.4. This domain is found in the C-terminus of the bifunctional animal members of the family.
191867FTCD_Npfam07837Formiminotransferase domain, N-terminal subdomain. The formiminotransferase (FT) domain of formiminotransferase- cyclodeaminase (FTCD) forms a homodimer, and each protomer comprises two subdomains. The N-terminal subdomain is made up of a six-stranded mixed beta-pleated sheet and five alpha helices, which are arranged on the external surface of the beta sheet. This, in turn, faces the beta-sheet of the C-terminal subdomain to form a double beta-sheet layer. The two subdomains are separated by a short linker sequence, which is not thought to be any more flexible than the remainder of the molecule. The substrate is predicted to form a number of contacts with residues found in both the N-terminal and C-terminal subdomains.
133032G1P_TT_longcd04189G1P_TT_long represents the long form of glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase. This family is the long form of Glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase. Glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase catalyses the formation of dTDP-glucose, from dTTP and glucose 1-phosphate. It is the first enzyme in the biosynthesis of dTDP-L-rhamnose, a cell wall constituent and a feedback inhibitor of the enzyme.There are two forms of Glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase in bacteria and archeae; short form and long form. The long form, which has an extra 50 amino acids c-terminal, is found in many species for which it serves as a sugar-activating enzyme for antibiotic biosynthesis and or other, unknown pathways, and in which dTDP-L-rhamnose is not necessarily produced.The long from enzymes also have a left-handed parallel helix domain at the c-terminus, whereas, th eshort form enzymes do not have this domain. The homotetrameric, feedback inhibited short form is found in numerous bacterial species that produce dTDP-L-rhamnose.
216590GAFpfam01590GAF domain. This domain is present in cGMP-specific phosphodiesterases, adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases, phytochromes, FhlA and NifA. Adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases catalyze ATP and GTP to the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, respectively, these products up-regulating catalytic activity by binding to the regulatory GAF domain(s). The opposite hydrolysis reaction is catalyzed by phosphodiesterase. cGMP-dependent 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase catalyzes the conversion of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic phosphate to guanosine 5'-phosphate. Here too, cGMP regulates catalytic activity by GAF-domain binding. Phytochromes are regulatory photoreceptors in plants and bacteria which exist in two thermally-stable states that are reversibly inter-convertible by light: the Pr state absorbs maximally in the red region of the spectrum, while the Pfr state absorbs maximally in the far-red region. This domain is also found in FhlA (formate hydrogen lyase transcriptional activator) and NifA, a transcriptional activator which is required for activation of most Nif operons which are directly involved in nitrogen fixation. NifA interacts with sigma-54.
153210GATase1cd01653Type 1 glutamine amidotransferase (GATase1)-like domain. Type 1 glutamine amidotransferase (GATase1)-like domain. This group includes proteins similar to Class I glutamine amidotransferases, the intracellular PH1704 from Pyrococcus horikoshii, the C-terminal of the large catalase: Escherichia coli HP-II, Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm1021 ThuA. and, the A4 beta-galactosidase middle domain. The majority of proteins in this group have a reactive Cys found in the sharp turn between a beta strand and an alpha helix termed the nucleophile elbow. For Class I glutamine amidotransferases proteins which transfer ammonia from the amide side chain of glutamine to an acceptor substrate, this Cys forms a Cys-His-Glu catalytic triad in the active site. Glutamine amidotransferases activity can be found in a range of biosynthetic enzymes included in this cd: glutamine amidotransferase, formylglycinamide ribonucleotide, GMP synthetase, anthranilate synthase component II, glutamine-dependent carbamoyl phosphate synthase, cytidine triphosphate synthetase, gamma-glutamyl hydrolase, imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase and, cobyric acid synthase. For Pyrococcus horikoshii PH1704, the Cys of the nucleophile elbow together with a different His and, a Glu from an adjacent monomer form a catalytic triad different from the typical GATase1 triad. The E. coli HP-II C-terminal domain, S. meliloti Rm1021 ThuA and the A4 beta-galactosidase middle domain lack the catalytic triad typical GATaseI domains. GATase1-like domains can occur either as single polypeptides, as in Class I glutamine amidotransferases, or as domains in a much larger multifunctional synthase protein, such as CPSase.
153231GATase1_AraC_1cd03137AraC transcriptional regulators having a Type 1 glutamine amidotransferase (GATase1)-like domain. A subgroup of AraC transcriptional regulators having a Type 1 glutamine amidotransferase (GATase1)-like domain. AraC regulators are defined by a AraC-type helix-turn-helix DNA binding domain at their C-terminal. AraC family transcriptional regulators are widespread among bacteria and are involved in regulating diverse and important biological functions, including carbon metabolism, stress responses and virulence in different microorganisms. The catalytic triad typical of GATase1 domains is not conserved in this GATase1-like domain. However, in common with typical GATase1domains a reactive cys residue is found in the sharp turn between a beta strand and an alpha helix termed the nucleophile elbow.
153230GATase1_AraC_ArgR_licd03136AraC transcriptional regulators having an N-terminal Type 1 glutamine amidotransferase (GATase1)-like domain. A subgroup of AraC transcriptional regulators having an N-terminal Type 1 glutamine amidotransferase (GATase1)-like domain. This group contains proteins similar to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa ArgR regulator. ArgR functions in the control of expression of certain genes of arginine biosynthesis and catabolism. AraC regulators are defined by a AraC-type helix-turn-helix DNA binding domain at their C-terminal. AraC family transcriptional regulators are widespread among bacteria and are involved in regulating diverse and important biological functions, including carbon metabolism, stress responses and virulence in different microorganisms. The catalytic triad typical of GATase1 domains is not conserved in this GATase1-like domain. However, in common with typical GATase1domains a reactive cys residue is found in some sequences in the sharp turn between a beta strand and an alpha helix termed the nucleophile elbow.
153242GATase1_EcHsp31_likecd03148Type 1 glutamine amidotransferase (GATase1)-like domain found in Escherichia coli Hsp31 protein (EcHsp31). Type 1 glutamine amidotransferase (GATase1)-like domain found in Escherichia coli Hsp31 protein (EcHsp31). This group includes proteins similar to EcHsp31. EcHsp31 has chaperone activity. EcHsp31 coordinates a metal ion using a 2-His-1-carboxylate motif present in various ions that use iron as a cofactor such as Carboxypeptidase A. The catalytic triad typical of GATase1 domains is not conserved in this GATase1-like domain. However, in common with a typical GATase1domain, a reactive Cys residue is found in the sharp turn between a beta strand and an alpha helix termed the nucleophile elbow. This Cys together with a different His and, an Asp (rather than a Glu) residue form a different catalytic triad from the typical GATase1 domain. EcHsp31 is a homodimer.
153227GATase1_ES1cd03133Type 1 glutamine amidotransferase (GATase1)-like domain found in zebrafish ES1. Type 1 glutamine amidotransferase (GATase1)-like domain found in zebrafish ES1. This group includes, proteins similar to ES1, Escherichia coli enhancing lycopene biosynthesis protein 2, Azospirillum brasilense iaaC and, human HES1. The catalytic triad typical of GATase1domains is not conserved in this GATase1-like domain. However, in common with GATase1domains a reactive cys residue is found in the sharp turn between a beta strand and an alpha helix termed the nucleophile elbow. Zebrafish ES1 is expressed specifically in adult photoreceptor cells and appears to be a cytoplasmic protein. A. brasilense iaaC is involved in controlling IAA biosynthesis.
153235GATase1_Hsp31_likecd03141Type 1 glutamine amidotransferase (GATase1)-like domain found in proteins similar to Escherichia coli Hsp31 protein. Type 1 glutamine amidotransferase (GATase1)-like domain found in proteins similar to Escherichia coli Hsp31 protein (EcHsp31). This group includes EcHsp31 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ydr533c protein. EcHsp31 has chaperone activity. Ydr533c is upregulated in response to various stress conditions along with the heat shock family. EcHsp31 coordinates a metal ion using a 2-His-1-carboxylate motif present in various ions that use iron as a cofactor such as Carboxypeptidase A. The catalytic triad typical of GATase1 domains is not conserved in this GATase1-like domain. However, in common with a typical GATase1 domain, a reactive Cys residue is found in the sharp turn between a beta strand and an alpha helix termed the nucleophile elbow. For EcHsp31, this Cys together with a different His and, an Asp (rather than a Glu) residue form a different catalytic triad from the typical GATase1 domain. For Ydr533c a catalytic triad forms from the conserved Cys together with a different His and Glu from that of the typical GATase1domain. Ydr533c protein and EcHsp31 are homodimers.
153228GATase1_PfpI_likecd03134A type 1 glutamine amidotransferase (GATase1)-like domain found in PfpI from Pyrococcus furiosus. A type 1 glutamine amidotransferase (GATase1)-like domain found in PfpI from Pyrococcus furiosus. This group includes proteins similar to PfpI from P. furiosus. and PH1704 from Pyrococcus horikoshii. These enzymes are ATP-independent intracellular proteases and may hydrolyze small peptides to provide a nutritional source. Only Cys of the catalytic triad typical of GATase1 domains is conserved in this group. This Cys residue is found in the sharp turn between a beta strand and an alpha helix termed the nucleophile elbow. For PH1704, it is believed that this Cys together with a different His in one monomer and Glu (from an adjacent monomer) forms a different catalytic triad from the typical GATase1domain. PfpI is homooligomeric. Protease activity is only found for oligomeric forms of PH1704.
153241GATase1_Ydr533c_likecd03147Type 1 glutamine amidotransferase (GATase1)-like domain found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ydr533c protein. Type 1 glutamine amidotransferase (GATase1)-like domain found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ydr533c protein. This group includes proteins similar to S. cerevisiae Ydr533c. Ydr533c is upregulated in response to various stress conditions along with the heat shock family. The catalytic triad typical of GATase1domains is not conserved in this GATase1-like domain. However, in common with a typical GATase1domain, a reactive Cys residue is found in the sharp turn between a beta strand and an alpha helix termed the nucleophile elbow. This Cys together with a different His and Glu residue form a different catalytic triad from the typical GATase1domain. Ydr533c protein is a homodimer.
217159GatB_Yqeypfam02637GatB domain. This domain is found in GatB. It is about 140 amino acid residues long. This domain is found at the C terminus of GatB, which transamidates Glu-tRNA to Gln-tRNA.
197913GatB_Yqeysmart00845GatB domain. This domain is found in GatB and proteins related to bacterial Yqey. It is about 140 amino acid residues long. This domain is found at the C terminus of GatB which transamidates Glu-tRNA to Gln-tRNA. The function of this domain is uncertain. It does however suggest that Yqey and its relatives have a role in tRNA metabolism.
153222GAT_1cd03128Type 1 glutamine amidotransferase (GATase1)-like domain. Type 1 glutamine amidotransferase (GATase1)-like domain. This group contains proteins similar to Class I glutamine amidotransferases, the intracellular PH1704 from Pyrococcus horikoshii, the C-terminal of the large catalase: Escherichia coli HP-II, Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm1021 ThuA, the A4 beta-galactosidase middle domain and peptidase E. The majority of proteins in this group have a reactive Cys found in the sharp turn between a beta strand and an alpha helix termed the nucleophile elbow. For Class I glutamine amidotransferases proteins which transfer ammonia from the amide side chain of glutamine to an acceptor substrate, this Cys forms a Cys-His-Glu catalytic triad in the active site. Glutamine amidotransferases activity can be found in a range of biosynthetic enzymes included in this cd: glutamine amidotransferase, formylglycinamide ribonucleotide, GMP synthetase, anthranilate synthase component II, glutamine-dependent carbamoyl phosphate synthase (CPSase), cytidine triphosphate synthetase, gamma-glutamyl hydrolase, imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase and, cobyric acid synthase. For Pyrococcus horikoshii PH1704, the Cys of the nucleophile elbow together with a different His and, a Glu from an adjacent monomer form a catalytic triad different from the typical GATase1 triad. Peptidase E is believed to be a serine peptidase having a Ser-His-Glu catalytic triad which differs from the Cys-His-Glu catalytic triad of typical GATase1 domains, by having a Ser in place of the reactive Cys at the nucleophile elbow. The E. coli HP-II C-terminal domain, S. meliloti Rm1021 ThuA and the A4 beta-galactosidase middle domain lack the catalytic triad typical GATaseI domains. GATase1-like domains can occur either as single polypeptides, as in Class I glutamine amidotransferases, or as domains in a much larger multifunctional synthase protein, such as CPSase. Peptidase E has a circular permutation in the common core of a typical GTAse1 domain.
221464GBA2_Npfam12215beta-Glucocerebrosidase 2 N terminal. This domain is found in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. This domain is typically between 320 to 354 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam04685. This domain is found in the protein beta-Glucocerebrosidase 2. It is found just after the extreme N terminus. This protein is located in the ER. The N terminal is thought to be the luminal domain while the C terminal is the cytosolic domain. The catalytic domain of GBA-2 is unknown.
216578GCV_Tpfam01571Aminomethyltransferase folate-binding domain. This is a family of glycine cleavage T-proteins, part of the glycine cleavage multienzyme complex (GCV) found in bacteria and the mitochondria of eukaryotes. GCV catalyzes the catabolism of glycine in eukaryotes. The T-protein is an aminomethyl transferase.
119333GH20_chitobiase-likecd06563The chitobiase of Serratia marcescens is a beta-N-1,4-acetylhexosaminidase with a glycosyl hydrolase family 20 (GH20) domain that hydrolyzes the beta-1,4-glycosidic linkages in oligomers derived from chitin. Chitin is degraded by a two step process: i) a chitinase hydrolyzes the chitin to oligosaccharides and disaccharides such as di-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and chitobiose, ii) chitobiase then further degrades these oligomers into monomers. This GH20 domain family includes an N-acetylglucosamidase (GlcNAcase A) from Pseudoalteromonas piscicida and an N-acetylhexosaminidase (SpHex) from Streptomyces plicatus. SpHex lacks the C-terminal PKD (polycystic kidney disease I)-like domain found in the chitobiases. The GH20 hexosaminidases are thought to act via a catalytic mechanism in which the catalytic nucleophile is not provided by solvent or the enzyme, but by the substrate itself.
119338GH20_chitobiase-likecd06570A functionally uncharacterized subgroup of the Glycosyl hydrolase family 20 (GH20) catalytic domain found in proteins similar to the chitobiase of Serratia marcescens, a beta-N-1,4-acetylhexosaminidase that hydrolyzes the beta-1,4-glycosidic linkages in oligomers derived from chitin. Chitin is degraded by a two step process: i) a chitinase hydrolyzes the chitin to oligosaccharides and disaccharides such as di-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and chitobiose, ii) chitobiase then further degrades these oligomers into monomers. This subgroup lacks the C-terminal PKD (polycystic kidney disease I)-like domain found in the chitobiases. The GH20 hexosaminidases are thought to act via a catalytic mechanism in which the catalytic nucleophile is not provided by solvent or the enzyme, but by the substrate itself.
119336GH20_SpHex_likecd06568A subgroup of the Glycosyl hydrolase family 20 (GH20) catalytic domain found in proteins similar to the N-acetylhexosaminidase from Streptomyces plicatus (SpHex). SpHex catalyzes the hydrolysis of N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminides. An Asp residue within the active site plays a critical role in substrate-assisted catalysis by orienting the 2-acetamido group and stabilizing the transition state. The GH20 hexosaminidases are thought to act via a catalytic mechanism in which the catalytic nucleophile is not provided by solvent or the enzyme, but by the substrate itself. Proteins belonging to this subgroup lack the C-terminal PKD (polycystic kidney disease I)-like domain found in the chitobiases.
133133GH31_MGAM_SI_GAAcd06602This family includes the following three closely related glycosyl hydrolase family 31 (GH31) enzymes: maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM), sucrase-isomaltase (SI), and lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA), also known as acid-maltase. MGAM is one of the two enzymes responsible for catalyzing the last glucose-releasing step in starch digestion. SI is implicated in the digestion of dietary starch and major disaccharides such as sucrose and isomaltose, while GAA degrades glycogen in the lysosome, cleaving both alpha-1,4 and alpha-1,6 glucosidic linkages. MGAM and SI are anchored to small-intestinal brush-border epithelial cells. The absence of SI from the brush border membrane or its malfunction is associated with malabsorption disorders such as congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID). The domain architectures of MGAM and SI include two tandem GH31 catalytic domains, an N-terminal domain found near the membrane-bound end, and a C-terminal luminal domain. Both of the tandem GH31 domains of MGAM and SI are included in this family. The domain architecture of GAA includes an N-terminal TFF (trefoil factor family) domain in addition to the GH31 catalytic domain. Deficient GAA expression causes pompe disease, an autosomal recessive genetic disorder also known as glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII).
176192glucose_DHcd08230Glucose dehydrogenase. Glucose dehydrogenase (GlcDH), a member of the medium chain dehydrogenase/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, catalyzes the NADP(+)-dependent oxidation of glucose to gluconate, the first step in the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, an alternative to or substitute for glycolysis or the pentose phosphate pathway. The medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, which contains the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn) and related proteins, is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. MDRs display a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P) binding-Rossman fold domain of a beta-alpha form and an N-terminal catalytic domain with distant homology to GroES. The MDR group contains a host of activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. Active site zinc has a catalytic role, while structural zinc aids in stability.
238359Gly_His_Pro_Ser_Thr_cd00670Gly_His_Pro_Ser_Thr_tRNA synthetase class II core domain. This domain is the core catalytic domain of tRNA synthetases of the subgroup containing glycyl, histidyl, prolyl, seryl and threonyl tRNA synthetases. It is primarily responsible for ATP-dependent formation of the enzyme bound aminoacyl-adenylate. These enzymes belong to class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) based upon their structure and the presence of three characteristic sequence motifs in the core domain. This domain is also found at the C-terminus of eukaryotic GCN2 protein kinase and at the N-terminus of the ATP phosphoribosyltransferase accessory subunit, HisZ and the accessory subunit of mitochondrial polymerase gamma (Pol gamma b) . Most class II tRNA synthetases are dimers, with this subgroup consisting of mostly homodimers. These enzymes attach a specific amino acid to the 3' OH group of ribose of the appropriate tRNA.
239735Gn_AT_II_novelcd03766Gn_AT_II_novel. This asparagine synthase-related domain is present in eukaryotes but its function has not yet been determined. The glutaminase domain catalyzes an amide nitrogen transfer from glutamine to the appropriate substrate. In this process, glutamine is hydrolyzed to glutamic acid and ammonia. This domain is related to members of the Ntn (N-terminal nucleophile) hydrolase superfamily and is found at the N-terminus of enzymes such as glucosamine-fructose 6-phosphate synthase (GLMS or GFAT), glutamine phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (Prpp) amidotransferase (GPATase), asparagine synthetase B (AsnB), beta lactam synthetase (beta-LS) and glutamate synthase (GltS). GLMS catalyzes the formation of glucosamine 6-phosphate from fructose 6-phosphate and glutamine in amino sugar synthesis. GPATase catalyzes the first step in purine biosynthesis, an amide transfer from glutamine to PRPP, resulting in phosphoribosylamine, pyrophosphate and glutamate. Asparagine synthetase B synthesizes asparagine from aspartate and glutamine. Beta-LS catalyzes the formation of the beta-lactam ring in the beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid. GltS synthesizes L-glutamate from 2-oxoglutarate and L-glutamine. These enzymes are generally dimers, but GPATase also exists as a homotetramer.
198309GST_C_AIMP2cd03200Glutathione S-transferase C-terminal-like, alpha helical domain of Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex-Interacting Multifunctional Protein 2. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) C-terminal domain family, Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex-Interacting Multifunctional Protein (AIMP) 2 subfamily; AIMPs are non-enzymatic cofactors that play critical roles in the assembly and formation of a macromolecular multi-tRNA synthetase protein complex that functions as a molecular hub to coordinate protein synthesis. There are three AIMPs, named AIMP1-3, which play diverse regulatory roles. AIMP2, also called p38 or JTV-1, contains a C-terminal domain with similarity to the C-terminal alpha helical domain of GSTs. It plays an important role in the control of cell fate via antiproliferative (by enhancing the TGF-beta signal) and proapoptotic (activation of p53 and TNF-alpha) activities. Its roles in the control of cell proliferation and death suggest that it is a potent tumor suppressor. AIMP2 heterozygous mice with lower than normal expression of AIMP2 show high susceptibility to tumorigenesis. AIMP2 is also a substrate of Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is involved in the ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation of its substrates. Mutations in the Parkin gene is found in 50% of patients with autosomal-recessive early-onset parkinsonism. The accumulation of AIMP2, due to impaired Parkin function, may play a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.
198319GST_C_Picd03210C-terminal, alpha helical domain of Class Pi Glutathione S-transferases. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) C-terminal domain family, Class Pi subfamily; GSTs are cytosolic dimeric proteins involved in cellular detoxification by catalyzing the conjugation of glutathione (GSH) with a wide range of endogenous and xenobiotic alkylating agents, including carcinogens, therapeutic drugs, environmental toxins, and products of oxidative stress. The GST fold contains an N-terminal thioredoxin-fold domain and a C-terminal alpha helical domain, with an active site located in a cleft between the two domains. GSH binds to the N-terminal domain while the hydrophobic substrate occupies a pocket in the C-terminal domain. Class Pi GST is a homodimeric eukaryotic protein. The human GSTP1 is mainly found in erythrocytes, kidney, placenta and fetal liver. It is involved in stress responses and in cellular proliferation pathways as an inhibitor of JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase). Following oxidative stress, monomeric GSTP1 dissociates from JNK and dimerizes, losing its ability to bind JNK and causing an increase in JNK activity, thereby promoting apoptosis. GSTP1 is expressed in various tumors and is the predominant GST in a wide range of cancer cells. It has been implicated in the development of multidrug-resistant tumors.
239374GST_N_Picd03076GST_N family, Class Pi subfamily; GSTs are cytosolic dimeric proteins involved in cellular detoxification by catalyzing the conjugation of glutathione (GSH) with a wide range of endogenous and xenobiotic alkylating agents, including carcinogens, therapeutic drugs, environmental toxins and products of oxidative stress. The GST fold contains an N-terminal TRX-fold domain and a C-terminal alpha helical domain, with an active site located in a cleft between the two domains. Class Pi GST is a homodimeric eukaryotic protein. The human GSTP1 is mainly found in erythrocytes, kidney, placenta and fetal liver. It is involved in stress responses and in cellular proliferation pathways as an inhibitor of JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase). Following oxidative stress, monomeric GSTP1 dissociates from JNK and dimerizes, losing its ability to bind JNK and causing an increase in JNK activity, thereby promoting apoptosis. GSTP1 is expressed in various tumors and is the predominant GST in a wide range of cancer cells. It has been implicated in the development of multidrug-resistant tumours.
99985GT1_like_2cd03814This family is most closely related to the GT1 family of glycosyltransferases. Glycosyltransferases catalyze the transfer of sugar moieties from activated donor molecules to specific acceptor molecules, forming glycosidic bonds. The acceptor molecule can be a lipid, a protein, a heterocyclic compound, or another carbohydrate residue. This group of glycosyltransferases is most closely related to the previously defined glycosyltransferase family 1 (GT1). The members of this family may transfer UDP, ADP, GDP, or CMP linked sugars. The diverse enzymatic activities among members of this family reflect a wide range of biological functions. The protein structure available for this family has the GTB topology, one of the two protein topologies observed for nucleotide-sugar-dependent glycosyltransferases. GTB proteins have distinct N- and C- terminal domains each containing a typical Rossmann fold. The two domains have high structural homology despite minimal sequence homology. The large cleft that separates the two domains includes the catalytic center and permits a high degree of flexibility. The members of this family are found mainly in bacteria and eukaryotes.
99969GT1_like_4cd03795This family is most closely related to the GT1 family of glycosyltransferases. Glycosyltransferases catalyze the transfer of sugar moieties from activated donor molecules to specific acceptor molecules, forming glycosidic bonds. The acceptor molecule can be a lipid, a protein, a heterocyclic compound, or another carbohydrate residue. This group of glycosyltransferases is most closely related to the previously defined glycosyltransferase family 1 (GT1). The members of this family may transfer UDP, ADP, GDP, or CMP-linked sugars. The diverse enzymatic activities among members of this family reflect a wide range of biological functions. The protein structure available for this family has the GTB topology, one of the two protein topologies observed for nucleotide-sugar-dependent glycosyltransferases. GTB proteins have distinct N- and C- terminal domains each containing a typical Rossmann fold. The two domains have high structural homology despite minimal sequence homology. The large cleft that separates the two domains includes the catalytic center and permits a high degree of flexibility. The members of this family are found mainly in bacteria and eukaryotes.
100002GT1_like_5cd04962This family is most closely related to the GT1 family of glycosyltransferases. Glycosyltransferases catalyze the transfer of sugar moieties from activated donor molecules to specific acceptor molecules, forming glycosidic bonds. The acceptor molecule can be a lipid, a protein, a heterocyclic compound, or another carbohydrate residue. This group of glycosyltransferases is most closely related to the previously defined glycosyltransferase family 1 (GT1). The members of this family may transfer UDP, ADP, GDP, or CMP linked sugars. The diverse enzymatic activities among members of this family reflect a wide range of biological functions. The protein structure available for this family has the GTB topology, one of the two protein topologies observed for nucleotide-sugar-dependent glycosyltransferases. GTB proteins have distinct N- and C- terminal domains each containing a typical Rossmann fold. The two domains have high structural homology despite minimal sequence homology. The large cleft that separates the two domains includes the catalytic center and permits a high degree of flexibility. The members of this family are found mainly in bacteria, while some of them are also found in Archaea and eukaryotes.
99974GT1_YqgM_likecd03801This family is most closely related to the GT1 family of glycosyltransferases and named after YqgM in Bacillus licheniformis about which little is known. Glycosyltransferases catalyze the transfer of sugar moieties from activated donor molecules to specific acceptor molecules, forming glycosidic bonds. The acceptor molecule can be a lipid, a protein, a heterocyclic compound, or another carbohydrate residue. This group of glycosyltransferases is most closely related to the previously defined glycosyltransferase family 1 (GT1). The members of this family may transfer UDP, ADP, GDP, or CMP linked sugars. The diverse enzymatic activities among members of this family reflect a wide range of biological functions. The protein structure available for this family has the GTB topology, one of the two protein topologies observed for nucleotide-sugar-dependent glycosyltransferases. GTB proteins have distinct N- and C- terminal domains each containing a typical Rossmann fold. The two domains have high structural homology despite minimal sequence homology. The large cleft that separates the two domains includes the catalytic center and permits a high degree of flexibility. The members of this family are found mainly in certain bacteria and archaea.
214852HA2smart00847Helicase associated domain (HA2) Add an annotation. This presumed domain is about 90 amino acid residues in length. It is found is a diverse set of RNA helicases. Its function is unknown, however it seems likely to be involved in nucleic acid binding.
143619harmonin_N_like_1cd07358Domains similar to the N-terminal protein-binding module of harmonin. This domain is a putative protein-binding module based on its sequence similarity to the N-terminal domain of harmonin. Harmonin (not belonging to this group) is a postsynaptic density-95/discs-large/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain-containing scaffold protein, which organizes the Usher protein network of the inner ear and the retina. This domain is also related to domains found in several other PDZ domain-containing scaffold proteins which organize supramolecular complexes. This subgroup is comprised of uncharacterized PDZ-containing proteins including a protein designated Bos taurus PDZ containing 7 which has an N-terminal PDZ domain and a C-terminal harmonin_N_like domain; however the characterized human PDZ containing 7 containing two PDZ domains does not appear to contain a harmonin_N_like domain.
99895HDGF_relatedcd05834The PWWP domain is an essential part of the Hepatoma Derived Growth Factor (HDGF) family of proteins, and is necessary for DNA binding by HDGF. This family of endogenous nuclear-targeted mitogens includes HRP (HDGF-related proteins 1, 2, 3, 4, or HPR1, HPR2, HPR3, HPR4, respectively) and lens epithelium-derived growth factor, LEDGF. Members of the HDGF family have been linked to human diseases, and HDGF is a prognostic factor in several types of cancer. The PWWP domain, named for a conserved Pro-Trp-Trp-Pro motif, is a small domain consisting of 100-150 amino acids. The PWWP domain is found in numerous proteins that are involved in cell division, growth and differentiation. Most PWWP-domain proteins seem to be nuclear, often DNA-binding, proteins that function as transcription factors regulating a variety of developmental processes.
238379HGTP_anticodoncd00738HGTP anticodon binding domain, as found at the C-terminus of histidyl, glycyl, threonyl and prolyl tRNA synthetases, which are classified as a group of class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS). In aaRSs, the anticodon binding domain is responsible for specificity in tRNA-binding, so that the activated amino acid is transferred to a ribose 3' OH group of the appropriate tRNA only. This domain is also found in the accessory subunit of mitochondrial polymerase gamma (Pol gamma b).
238396HisRS-like_corecd00773Class II Histidinyl-tRNA synthetase (HisRS)-like catalytic core domain. HisRS is a homodimer. It is responsible for the attachment of histidine to the 3' OH group of ribose of the appropriate tRNA. This domain is primarily responsible for ATP-dependent formation of the enzyme bound aminoacyl-adenylate. Class II assignment is based upon its structure and the presence of three characteristic sequence motifs. This domain is also found at the C-terminus of eukaryotic GCN2 protein kinase and at the N-terminus of the ATP phosphoribosyltransferase accessory subunit, HisZ. HisZ along with HisG catalyze the first reaction in histidine biosynthesis. HisZ is found only in a subset of bacteria and differs from HisRS in lacking a C-terminal anti-codon binding domain.
151079Hist_rich_Ca-bdpfam10529Histidine-rich Calcium-binding repeat region. This is a histidine-rich calcium binding repeat which appears in proteins called histidine-rich-calcium binding proteins (HRC). HRC is a high capacity, low affinity Ca2+-binding protein, residing in the lumen of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. HRC binds directly to triadin. This binding interaction occurs between the histidine-rich region of HRC and multiple clusters of charged amino acids, named as the KEKE motifs, in the lumenal domain of triadin. The region in which this repeat is found in many copies is long and variable but is the acidic region of the protein. There is also a cysteine-rich region further towards the C-terminus. HRC may regulate sarcoplasmic reticular calcium transport and play a critical role in maintaining calcium homeostasis and function in the heart. HRC as a candidate regulator of sarcoplasmic reticular calcium uptake.
238276HMBScd00494Hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), also known as porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD), is an intermediate enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of tetrapyrrolic ring systems, such as heme, chlorophylls, and vitamin B12. HMBS catalyzes the conversion of porphobilinogen (PBG) into hydroxymethylbilane (HMB). HMBS consists of three domains, and is believed to bind substrate through a hinge-bending motion of domains I and II. HMBS is found in all organisms except viruses.
221458hNIFK_bindingpfam12196FHA Ki67 binding domain of hNIFK. This domain family is found in eukaryotes, and is approximately 40 amino acids in length. The family is found in association with pfam00076. There are two conserved sequence motifs: TPVCTP and LERRKS. This domain is found on the human nucleolar protein hNIFK. It binds to the fork-head-associated domain of human Ki67. High-affinity binding requires sequential phosphorylation by two kinases, CDK1 and GSK3, yielding pThr238, pThr234 and pSer230. This interaction is involved in cell cycle regulation.
219526HNOBApfam07701Heme NO binding associated. The HNOBA domain is found associated with the HNOB domain and pfam00211 in soluble cyclases and signalling proteins. The HNOB domain is predicted to function as a heme-dependent sensor for gaseous ligands, and transduce diverse downstream signals, in both bacteria and animals.
143616HN_L-delphilin-R2_licd07355Second harmonin_N_like domain (repeat 2) of L-delphilin, and related domains. This subgroup contains the second of two harmonin_N_like domains of an alternatively spliced longer variant of mouse delphilin (L-delphilin), and related domains. Delphilin is a postsynaptic density-95/discs-large/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain-containing scaffold protein which binds the glutamate receptor delta-2 (GRID2) subunit and the monocarboxylate transporter 2 at the cerebellar parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses. This harmonin_N_like domain in L-delphilin follows the second PDZ protein-binding domain, PDZ2; it is also found in the shorter C-terminal isoforms (S-delphilin/delphilin alpha and delphilin beta). It is a putative protein-binding module based on its sequence similarity to the harmonin N-domain. The first harmonin_N_like domain of L-delphilin belongs to a different subgroup and is missing from S-delphilin.
221585hSac2pfam12456Inositol phosphatase. This domain family is found in eukaryotes, and is approximately 120 amino acids in length. The family is found in association with pfam02383. hSac2 functions as an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase.
153289I-BAR_IMDcd07605Inverse (I)-BAR, also known as the IRSp53/MIM homology Domain (IMD), a dimerization module that binds and bends membranes. Inverse (I)-BAR (or IMD) is a member of the Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain family. It is a dimerization and lipid-binding module that bends membranes and induces membrane protrusions in the opposite direction compared to classical BAR and F-BAR domains, which produce membrane invaginations. IMD domains are found in Insulin Receptor tyrosine kinase Substrate p53 (IRSp53), Missing in Metastasis (MIM), and Brain-specific Angiogenesis Inhibitor 1-Associated Protein 2-like (BAIAP2L) proteins. These are multi-domain proteins that act as scaffolding proteins and transducers of a variety of signaling pathways that link membrane dynamics and the underlying actin cytoskeleton. Most members contain an N-terminal IMD, an SH3 domain, and a WASP homology 2 (WH2) actin-binding motif at the C-terminus, exccept for MIM which does not carry an SH3 domain. Some members contain additional domains and motifs. The IMD domain binds and bundles actin filaments, binds membranes and produces membrane protrusions, and interacts with the small GTPase Rac.
176197iditol_2_DH_likecd08235L-iditol 2-dehydrogenase. Putative L-iditol 2-dehydrogenase based on annotation of some members in this subgroup. L-iditol 2-dehydrogenase catalyzes the NAD+-dependent conversion of L-iditol to L-sorbose in fructose and mannose metabolism. This enzyme is related to sorbitol dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and other medium chain dehydrogenase/reductases. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn)-like family of proteins is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. This group is also called the medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase family (MDR) to highlight its broad range of activities and to distinguish from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P) binding-Rossmann fold domain of a beta-alpha form and an N-terminal GroES-like catalytic domain. The MDR group contains a host of activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. Active site zinc has a catalytic role, while structural zinc aids in stability. ADH-like proteins typically form dimers (typically higher plants, mammals) or tetramers (yeast, bacteria), and generally have 2 tightly bound zinc atoms per subunit. The active site zinc is coordinated by a histidine, two cysteines, and a water molecule. The second zinc seems to play a structural role, affects subunit interactions, and is typically coordinated by 4 cysteines.
176194idonate-5-DHcd08232L-idonate 5-dehydrogenase. L-idonate 5-dehydrogenase (L-ido 5-DH ) catalyzes the conversion of L-lodonate to 5-ketogluconate in the metabolism of L-Idonate to 6-P-gluconate. In E. coli, this GntII pathway is a subsidiary pathway to the canonical GntI system, which also phosphorylates and transports gluconate. L-ido 5-DH is found in an operon with a regulator indR, transporter idnT, 5-keto-D-gluconate 5-reductase, and Gnt kinase. L-ido 5-DH is a zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like protein. The alcohol dehydrogenase ADH-like family of proteins is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. This group is also called the medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase family (MDR) which displays a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases(~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P) binding-Rossmann fold domain of a beta-alpha form and an N-terminal GroES-like catalytic domain. The MDR group contains a host of activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. ADH-like proteins typically form dimers (typically higher plants, mammals) or tetramers (yeast, bacteria), and generally have 2 tightly bound zinc atoms per subunit. The active site zinc is coordinated by a histidine, two cysteines, and a water molecule. The second zinc seems to play a structural role, affects subunit interactions, and is typically coordinated by 4 cysteines.
143165Igcd00096Immunoglobulin domain. Ig: immunoglobulin (Ig) domain found in the Ig superfamily. The Ig superfamily is a heterogenous group of proteins, built on a common fold comprised of a sandwich of two beta sheets. Members of this group are components of immunoglobulin, neuroglia, cell surface glycoproteins, such as, T-cell receptors, CD2, CD4, CD8, and membrane glycoproteins, such as, butyrophilin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein. A predominant feature of most Ig domains is a disulfide bridge connecting the two beta-sheets with a tryptophan residue packed against the disulfide bond.
215677igpfam00047Immunoglobulin domain. Members of the immunoglobulin superfamily are found in hundreds of proteins of different functions. Examples include antibodies, the giant muscle kinase titin and receptor tyrosine kinases. Immunoglobulin-like domains may be involved in protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions. The Pfam alignments do not include the first and last strand of the immunoglobulin-like domain.
143314Ig1_CD4cd07690First immunoglobulin (Ig) domain of CD4. Ig1_CD4; first immunoglobulin (Ig) domain of CD4. CD4 and CD8 are the two primary co-receptor proteins found on the surface of T cells, and the presence of either CD4 or CD8 determines the function of the T cell. CD4 is found on helper T cells, where it is required for the binding of MHC (major histocompatibility complex) class II molecules, while CD8 is found on cytotoxic T cells, where it is required for the binding of MHC class I molecules. CD4 contains four immunoglobulin domains, with the first three included in this hierarchy. The fourth domain has a general Ig architecture, but has slight topological changes in the arrangement of beta strands relative to the other structures in this family and is not specifically included in the hierarchy.
143228Ig1_LILRB1_likecd05751First immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain found in Leukocyte Ig-like receptors (LILR)B1 (also known as LIR-1) and similar proteins. Ig1_LILRB1_like: domain similar to the first immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain found in Leukocyte Ig-like receptors (LILR)B1 (also known as LIR-1). This group includes, LILRA5 (LIR9), an activating natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp46, and the immune-type receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI). LILRs are a family of immunoreceptors expressed on expressed on T and B cells, on monocytes, dendritic cells, and subgroups of natural killer (NK) cells. The human LILR family contains nine proteins (LILRA1-3,and 5, and LILRB1-5). From functional assays, and as the cytoplasmic domains of various LILRs, for example LILRB1 (LIR-1), LILRB2 (LIR-2), and LILRB3 (LIR-3) contain immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) it is thought that LIR proteins are inhibitory receptors. Of the eight LIR family proteins, only LIR-1(LILRB1), and LIR-2 (LILRB2), show detectable binding to class I MHC molecules; ligands for the other members have yet to be determined. The extracellular portions of the different LIR proteins contain different numbers of Ig-like domains for example, four in the case of LILRB1 (LIR-1), and LILRB2 (LIR-2), and two in the case of LILRB4 (LIR-5). The activating natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp46. is expressed in natural killer cells, and is organized as an extracellular portion having two Ig-like extracellular domains, a transmembrane domain, and a small cytoplasmic portion. GPVI, which also contains two Ig-like domains, participates in the processes of collagen-mediated platelet activation and arterial thrombus formation.
143318Ig2_CD4cd07694Second immunoglobulin (Ig) domain of CD4. Ig2_CD4; second immunoglobulin (Ig) domain of CD4. CD4 and CD8 are the two primary co-receptor proteins found on the surface of T cells, and the presence of either CD4 or CD8 determines the function of the T cell. CD4 is found on helper T cells, where it is required for the binding of MHC (major histocompatibility complex) class II molecules, while CD8 is found on cytotoxic T cells, where it is required for the binding of MHC class I molecules. CD4 contains four immunoglobulin domains, with the first three included in this hierarchy. The fourth domain has a general Ig architecture, but has slight topological changes in the arrangement of beta strands relative to the other structures in this family and is not specifically included in the hierarchy.
143213Ig2_Follistatin_likecd05736Second immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain of a follistatin-like molecule encoded by the Mahya gene and similar proteins. Ig2_Follistatin_like: domain similar to the second immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain found in a follistatin-like molecule encoded by the CNS-related Mahya gene. Mahya genes have been retained in certain Bilaterian branches during evolution. They are conserved in Hymenoptera and Deuterostomes, but are absent from other metazoan species such as fruit fly and nematode. Mahya proteins are secretory, with a follistatin-like domain (Kazal-type serine/threonine protease inhibitor domain and EF-hand calcium-binding domain), two Ig-like domains, and a novel C-terminal domain. Mahya may be involved in learning and memory and in processing of sensory information in Hymenoptera and vertebrates. Follistatin is a secreted, multidomain protein that binds activins with high affinity and antagonizes their signaling.
143215Ig2_RPTP_IIa_LAR_likcd05738Second immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain of the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP)-F, also known as LAR. Ig2_RPTP_IIa_LAR_like: domain similar to the second immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain found in the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP)-F, also known as LAR. LAR belongs to the RPTP type IIa subfamily. Members of this subfamily are cell adhesion molecule-like proteins involved in central nervous system (CNS) development. They have large extracellular portions, comprised of multiple Ig-like domains and two to nine fibronectin type III (FNIII) domains, and a cytoplasmic portion having two tandem phosphatase domains.
143319Ig3_CD4_likecd07695Third immunoglobulin (Ig) domain of CD4. Ig3_CD4; third immunoglobulin (Ig) domain of CD4. CD4 and CD8 are the two primary co-receptor proteins found on the surface of T cells, and the presence of either CD4 or CD8 determines the function of the T cell. CD4 is found on helper T cells, where it is required for the binding of MHC (major histocompatibility complex) class II molecules, while CD8 is found on cytotoxic T cells, where it is required for the binding of MHC class I molecules. CD4 contains four immunoglobulin domains, with the first three included in this hierarchy. The fourth domain has a general Ig architecture, but has slight topological changes in the arrangement of beta strands relative to the other structures in this family and is not specifically included in the hierarchy.
143231Ig3_Perlecan_likecd05754Third immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain found in Perlecan and similar proteins. Ig3_Perlecan_like: domain similar to the third immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain found in Perlecan. Perlecan is a large multi-domain heparin sulfate proteoglycan, important in tissue development and organogenesis. Perlecan can be represented as 5 major portions; its fourth major portion (domain IV) is a tandem repeat of immunoglobulin-like domains (Ig2-Ig15), which can vary in size due to alternative splicing. Perlecan binds many cellular and extracellular ligands. Its domain IV region has many binding sites. Some of these have been mapped at the level of individual Ig-like domains, including a site restricted to the Ig5 domain for heparin/sulfatide, a site restricted to the Ig3 domain for nidogen-1 and nidogen-2, a site restricted to Ig4-5 for fibronectin, and sites restricted to Ig2 and to Ig13-15 for fibulin-2.
143216Ig3_RPTP_IIa_LAR_likcd05739Third immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain of the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP)-F, also known as LAR. Ig3_RPTP_IIa_LAR_like: domain similar to the third immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain found in the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP)-F, also known as LAR. LAR belongs to the RPTP type IIa subfamily. Members of this subfamily are cell adhesion molecule-like proteins involved in central nervous system (CNS) development. They have large extracellular portions, comprised of multiple IG-like domains and two to nine fibronectin type III (FNIII) domains, and a cytoplasmic portion having two tandem phosphatase domains. Included in this group is Drosophila LAR (DLAR).
143224Ig5_Titin_likecd05747M5, fifth immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain of human titin C terminus and similar proteins. Ig5_Titin_like: domain similar to the M5, fifth immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain from the human titin C terminus. Titin (also called connectin) is a fibrous sarcomeric protein specifically found in vertebrate striated muscle. Titin is gigantic; depending on isoform composition it ranges from 2970 to 3700 kDa, and is of a length that spans half a sarcomere. Titin largely consists of multiple repeats of Ig-like and fibronectin type 3 (FN-III)-like domains. Titin connects the ends of myosin thick filaments to Z disks and extends along the thick filament to the H zone, and appears to function similar to an elastic band, keeping the myosin filaments centered in the sarcomere during muscle contraction or stretching.
143186IgC_CH1cd04985CH1 domain (first constant Ig domain of the heavy chain) in immunoglobulin. IgC_CH1: The first immunoglobulin constant domain (IgC), of immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chains. This domain is found on the Fab antigen-binding fragment. The basic structure of Ig molecules is a tetramer of two light chains and two heavy chains linked by disulfide bonds. There are two types of light chains: kappa and lambda; each composed of a constant domain and a variable domain. There are five types of heavy chains: alpha, delta, epsilon, gamma and mu, all consisting of a variable domain (VH) and three (in alpha, delta and gamma) or four (in epsilon and mu) constant domains (CH1 to CH4). Ig molecules are modular proteins, in which the variable and constant domains have clear, conserved sequence patterns.
143187IgC_CH2cd04986CH2 domain (second constant Ig domain of the heavy chain) in immunoglobulin. IgC_CH2: The second immunoglobulin constant domain (IgC), of immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chains. This domain is found on the Fc fragment. The basic structure of Ig molecules is a tetramer of two light chains and two heavy chains linked by disulfide bonds. There are two types of light chains: kappa and lambda; each composed of a constant domain and a variable domain. There are five types of heavy chains: alpha, delta, epsilon, gamma and mu, all consisting of a variable domain (VH) and three (in alpha, delta and gamma) or four (in epsilon and mu) constant domains (CH1 to CH4). Ig molecules are modular proteins, in which the variable and constant domains have clear, conserved sequence patterns.
143255IgC_CH2_IgEcd05847CH2 domain (second constant Ig domain of the heavy chain) in immunoglobulin E (IgE). IgC_CH2_IgE: The second constant domain of the heavy chain of immunoglobulin E (IgE). The basic structure of immunoglobulin (Ig) molecules is a tetramer of two light chains and two heavy chains linked by disulfide bonds. There are two types of light chains: kappa and lambda; each composed of a constant domain and a variable domain. There are five types of heavy chains: alpha, delta, epsilon, gamma, and mu, all consisting of a variable domain (VH) and three (in alpha, delta, and gamma) or four (in epsilon and mu) constant domains (CH1 to CH4). The different classes of antibodies vary in their heavy chains; the IgE class has the epsilon type. This domain (Cepsilon2) of IgE is in place of the flexible hinge region found in IgG.
143320IgC_CH3cd07696CH3 domain (third constant Ig domain of the heavy chain) in immunoglobulin. IgC_CH3: The third immunoglobulin constant domain (IgC) of immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chains. This domain is found on the Fc fragment. The basic structure of Ig molecules is a tetramer of two light chains and two heavy chains linked by disulfide bonds. There are two types of light chains: kappa and lambda; each composed of a constant domain and a variable domain. There are five types of heavy chains: alpha, delta, epsilon, gamma and mu, all consisting of a variable domain (VH) and three (in alpha, delta and gamma) or four (in epsilon and mu) constant domains (CH1 to CH4). Ig molecules are modular proteins, in which the variable and constant domains have clear, conserved sequence patterns.
143245IgC_CH4cd05768CH4 domain (fourth constant Ig domain of the heavy chain) in immunoglobulin. IgC_CH4: The fourth immunoglobulin constant domain (IgC), of immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chains. This domain is found on the Fc fragment. The basic structure of Ig molecules is a tetramer of two light chains and two heavy chains linked by disulfide bonds. There are two types of light chains: kappa and lambda; each composed of a constant domain and a variable domain. There are five types of heavy chains: alpha, delta, epsilon, gamma and mu, all consisting of a variable domain (VH) and three (in alpha, delta and gamma) or four (in epsilon and mu) constant domains (CH1 to CH4). Ig molecules are modular proteins, in which the variable and constant domains have clear, conserved sequence patterns.
143198IgV_CTLA-4cd05721Immunoglobulin (Ig) domain of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4). IgV_CTLA-4: domain similar to the variable(v)-type immunoglobulin (Ig) domain found in cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4). CTLA-4 is involved in the regulation of T cell response, acting as an inhibitor of intracellular signalling. CTLA-4 is similar to CD28, a T cell co-receptor protein that recognizes the B7 proteins (CD80 and CD86). CD28 binding of the B7 proteins occurs after the presentation of antigen to the T cell receptor (TCR) via the peptide-MHC complex on the surface of an antigen presenting cell (APC). CTLA-4 also binds the B7 molecules with a higher affinity than does CD28. The B7/CTLA-4 interaction generates inhibitory signals down-regulating the response, and may prevent T cell activation by weak TCR signals. CD28 and CTLA-4 then elicit opposing signals in the regulation of T cell responsiveness and homeostasis. T cell activation leads to increased CTLA-4 gene expression and trafficking of CTLA-4 protein to the cell surface. CTLA-4 is not detected on the T-cell surface until 24 hours after activation. Covalent dimerization of CTLA-4 has been shown to be required for its high binding avidity, although each CTLA-4 monomer contains a binding site for CD80 and CD86.
143240Ig_1cd05763Subgroup of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily. Ig_1: subgroup of the immunoglobulin (Ig) domain found in the Ig superfamily. The Ig superfamily is a heterogenous group of proteins, built on a common fold comprised of a sandwich of two beta sheets. Members of the Ig superfamily are components of immunoglobulin, neuroglia, cell surface glycoproteins, such as T-cell receptors, CD2, CD4, CD8, and membrane glycoproteins, such as butyrophilin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein. A predominant feature of most Ig domains is a disulfide bridge connecting the two beta-sheets with a tryptophan residue packed against the disulfide bond.
143241Ig_2cd05764Subgroup of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily. Ig_2: subgroup of the immunoglobulin (Ig) domain found in the Ig superfamily. The Ig superfamily is a heterogenous group of proteins, built on a common fold comprised of a sandwich of two beta sheets. Members of the Ig superfamily are components of immunoglobulin, neuroglia, cell surface glycoproteins, such as T-cell receptors, CD2, CD4, CD8, and membrane glycoproteins, such as butyrophilin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein. A predominant feature of most Ig domains is a disulfide bridge connecting the two beta-sheets with a tryptophan residue packed against the disulfide bond.
143242Ig_3cd05765Subgroup of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily. Ig_3: subgroup of the immunoglobulin (Ig) domain found in the Ig superfamily. The Ig superfamily is a heterogenous group of proteins, built on a common fold comprised of a sandwich of two beta sheets. Members of the Ig superfamily are components of immunoglobulin, neuroglia, cell surface glycoproteins, such as T-cell receptors, CD2, CD4, CD8, and membrane glycoproteins, such as butyrophilin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein. A predominant feature of most Ig domains is a disulfide bridge connecting the two beta-sheets with a tryptophan residue packed against the disulfide bond.
143191Ig_CSPGs_LPcd05714Immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), human cartilage link protein (LP) and similar proteins. Ig_CSPGs_LP: immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain similar to that found in chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and human cartilage link protein (LP). Included in this group are the CSPGs aggrecan, versican, and neurocan. In CSPGs this Ig-like domain is followed by hyaluronan (HA)-binding tandem repeats, and a C-terminal region with epidermal growth factor-like, lectin-like, and complement regulatory protein-like domains. Separating these N- and C-terminal regions is a nonhomologous glycosaminoglycan attachment region. In cartilage, aggrecan forms cartilage link protein stabilized aggregates with hyaluronan (HA). These aggregates contribute to the tissue's load bearing properties. Aggrecan and versican have a wide distribution in connective tissue and extracellular matrices. Neurocan is localized almost exclusively in nervous tissue. Aggregates having other CSPGs substituting for aggrecan may contribute to the structural integrity of many different tissues. There is considerable evidence that HA-binding CSPGs are involved in developmental processes in the central nervous system. Members of the vertebrate HPLN (hyaluronan/HA and proteoglycan binding link) protein family are physically linked adjacent to CSPG genes.
143285Ig_LP_likecd05877Immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain of human cartilage link protein (LP). Ig_LP_like: immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain similar to that that found in human cartilage link protein (LP). In cartilage, chondroitin-keratan sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG), aggrecan, forms cartilage link protein stabilized aggregates with hyaluronan (HA). These aggregates contribute to the tissue's load bearing properties. Aggregates having other CSPGs substituting for aggrecan may contribute to the structural integrity of many different tissues. Members of the vertebrate HPLN (hyaluronan/HA and proteoglycan binding link) protein family are physically linked adjacent to CSPG genes.
143303Ig_Pro_neuregulin-1cd05895Immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain found in neuregulin (NRG)-1. Ig_Pro_neuregulin-1: immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain found in neuregulin (NRG)-1. There are many NRG-1 isoforms which arise from the alternative splicing of mRNA. NRG-1 belongs to the neuregulin gene family, which is comprised of four genes. This group represents NRG-1. NRGs are signaling molecules, which participate in cell-cell interactions in the nervous system, breast, and heart, and other organ systems, and are implicated in the pathology of diseases including schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis, and breast cancer. The NRG-1 protein binds to and activates the tyrosine kinases receptors ErbB3 and ErbB4, initiating signaling cascades. NRG-1 has multiple functions; for example, in the brain it regulates various processes such as radial glia formation and neuronal migration, dendritic development, and expression of neurotransmitters receptors; in the peripheral nervous system NRG-1 regulates processes such as target cell differentiation, and Schwann cell survival.
143180Ig_Semaphorin_Ccd04979Immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain of semaphorin. Ig_Semaphorin_C; Immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain in semaphorins. Semaphorins are transmembrane protein that have important roles in a variety of tissues. Functionally, semaphorins were initially characterized for their importance in the development of the nervous system and in axonal guidance. Later they have been found to be important for the formation and functioning of the cardiovascular, endocrine, gastrointestinal, hepatic, immune, musculoskeletal, renal, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Semaphorins function through binding to their receptors and transmembrane semaphorins also serves as receptors themselves. Although molecular mechanism of semaphorins is poorly understood, the Ig-like domains may involve in ligand binding or dimerization.
143225Ig_Titin_likecd05748Immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain of titin and similar proteins. Ig_Titin_like: immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain found in titin-like proteins. Titin (also called connectin) is a fibrous sarcomeric protein specifically found in vertebrate striated muscle. Titin is gigantic, depending on isoform composition it ranges from 2970 to 3700 kDa, and is of a length that spans half a sarcomere. Titin largely consists of multiple repeats of Ig-like and fibronectin type 3 (FN-III)-like domains. Titin connects the ends of myosin thick filaments to Z disks and extends along the thick filament to the H zone. It appears to function similarly to an elastic band, keeping the myosin filaments centered in the sarcomere during muscle contraction or stretching. Within the sarcomere, titin is also attached to or is associated with myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C). MyBP-C appears to contribute to the generation of passive tension by titin, and similar to titin has repeated Ig-like and FN-III domains. Also included in this group are worm twitchin and insect projectin, thick filament proteins of invertebrate muscle, which also have repeated Ig-like and FN-III domains.
143173Ig_TrkABC_d4cd04972Fourth domain (immunoglobulin-like) of Trk receptors TrkA, TrkB and TrkC. TrkABC_d4: the fourth domain of Trk receptors TrkA, TrkB and TrkC, this is an immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain which binds to neurotrophin. The Trk family of receptors are tyrosine kinase receptors. They are activated by dimerization, leading to autophosphorylation of intracellular tyrosine residues, and triggering the signal transduction pathway. TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC share significant sequence homology and domain organization. The first three domains are leucine-rich domains. The fourth and fifth domains are Ig-like domains playing a part in ligand binding. TrkA, Band C mediate the trophic effects of the neurotrophin Nerve growth factor (NGF) family. TrkA is recognized by NGF. TrKB is recognized by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin (NT)-4. TrkC is recognized by NT-3. NT-3 is promiscuous as in some cell systems it activates TrkA and TrkB receptors. TrkA is a receptor found in all major NGF targets, including the sympathetic, trigeminal, and dorsal root ganglia, cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain and the striatum. TrKB transcripts are found throughout multiple structures of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The TrkC gene is expressed throughout the mammalian nervous system.
143172Ig_TrKABC_d5cd04971Fifth domain (immunoglobulin-like) of Trk receptors TrkA, TrkB and TrkC. TrkABC_d5: the fifth domain of Trk receptors TrkA, TrkB and TrkC, this is an immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain which binds to neurotrophin. The Trk family of receptors are tyrosine kinase receptors. They are activated by dimerization, leading to autophosphorylation of intracellular tyrosine residues, and triggering the signal transduction pathway. TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC share significant sequence homology and domain organization. The first three domains are leucine-rich domains. The fourth and fifth domains are Ig-like domains playing a part in ligand binding. TrkA, Band C mediate the trophic effects of the neurotrophin Nerve growth factor (NGF) family. TrkA is recognized by NGF. TrkB is recognized by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin (NT)-4. TrkC is recognized by NT-3. NT-3 is promiscuous as in some cell systems it activates TrkA and TrkB receptors. TrkA is a receptor found in all major NGF targets, including the sympathetic, trigeminal, and dorsal root ganglia, cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain and the striatum. TrKB transcripts are found throughout multiple structures of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The TrkC gene is expressed throughout the mammalian nervous system.
143263Ig_TrkB_d5cd05855Fifth domain (immunoglobulin-like) of Trk receptor TrkB. TrkB_d5: the fifth domain of Trk receptor TrkB, this is an immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain which binds to neurotrophin. The Trk family of receptors are tyrosine kinase receptors, which mediate the trophic effects of the neurotrophin Nerve growth factor (NGF) family. The Trks are activated by dimerization, leading to autophosphorylation of intracellular tyrosine residues, and triggering the signal transduction pathway. TrkB shares significant sequence homology and domain organization with TrkA, and TrkC. The first three domains are leucine-rich domains. The fourth and fifth domains are Ig-like domains playing a part in ligand binding. TrKB is recognized by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin (NT)-4. In some cell systems NT-3 can activate TrkA and TrkB receptors. TrKB transcripts are found throughout multiple structures of the central and peripheral nervous systems.
238336IPT_TFcd00602IPT domain of eukaryotic transcription factors NF-kappaB/Rel, nuclear factor of activated Tcells (NFAT), and recombination signal J-kappa binding protein (RBP-Jkappa). The IPT domains in these proteins are involved in DNA binding. Most NF-kappaB/Rel proteins form homo- and heterodimers, while NFAT proteins are largely monomeric (with TonEBP being an exception). While the majority of sequence-specific DNA binding elements are found in the N-terminal domain, several are found in the IPT domain in loops adjacent to, and including, the linker region.
238667KISc_KIF3cd01371Kinesin motor domain, kinesins II or KIF3_like proteins. Subgroup of kinesins, which form heterotrimers composed of 2 kinesins and one non-motor accessory subunit. Kinesins II play important roles in ciliary transport, and have been implicated in neuronal transport, melanosome transport, the secretory pathway, and mitosis. This catalytic (head) domain has ATPase activity and belongs to the larger group of P-loop NTPases. Kinesins are microtubule-dependent molecular motors that play important roles in intracellular transport and in cell division. In this group the motor domain is found at the N-terminus (N-type). N-type kinesins are (+) end-directed motors, i.e. they transport cargo towards the (+) end of the microtubule. Kinesin motor domains hydrolyze ATP at a rate of about 80 per second, and move along the microtubule at a speed of about 6400 Angstroms per second. To achieve that, kinesin head groups work in pairs. Upon replacing ADP with ATP, a kinesin motor domain increases its affinity for microtubule binding and locks in place. Also, the neck linker binds to the motor domain, which repositions the other head domain through the coiled-coil domain close to a second tubulin dimer, about 80 Angstroms along the microtubule. Meanwhile, ATP hydrolysis takes place, and when the second head domain binds to the microtubule, the first domain again replaces ADP with ATP, triggering a conformational change that pulls the first domain forward.
238056KRcd00108Kringle domain; Kringle domains are believed to play a role in binding mediators, such as peptides, other proteins, membranes, or phospholipids. They are autonomous structural domains, found in a varying number of copies, in blood clotting and fibrinolytic proteins, some serine proteases and plasma proteins. Plasminogen-like kringles possess affinity for free lysine and lysine-containing peptides.
217209Kupfam02735Ku70/Ku80 beta-barrel domain. The Ku heterodimer (composed of Ku70 and Ku80) contributes to genomic integrity through its ability to bind DNA double-strand breaks and facilitate repair by the non-homologous end-joining pathway. This is the central DNA-binding beta-barrel domain. This domain is found in both the Ku70 and Ku80 proteins that form a DNA binding heterodimer.
117355Ku_PK_bindpfam08785Ku C terminal domain like. The non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway is one method by which double stranded breaks in chromosomal DNA are repaired. Ku is a component of a multi-protein complex that is involved in the NHEJ. Ku has affinity for DNA ends and recruits the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs). This domain is found at the C terminal of Ku which binds to DNA-PKcs.
239680lepA_Ccd03709lepA_C: This family represents the C-terminal region of LepA, a GTP-binding protein localized in the cytoplasmic membrane. LepA is ubiquitous in Bacteria and Eukaryota (e.g. Saccharomyces cerevisiae GUF1p), but is missing from Archaea. LepA exhibits significant homology to elongation factors (EFs) Tu and G. The function(s) of the proteins in this family are unknown. The N-terminal domain of LepA is homologous to a domain of similar size found in initiation factor 2 (IF2), and in EF-Tu and EF-G (factors required for translation in Escherichia coli). Two types of phylogenetic tree, rooted by other GTP-binding proteins, suggest that eukaryotic homologs (including S. cerevisiae GUF1) originated within the bacterial LepA family. LepA has never been observed in archaea, and eukaryl LepA is organellar. LepA is therefore a true bacterial GTPase, found only in the bacterial lineage.
173906LeuRS_corecd00812catalytic core domain of leucyl-tRNA synthetases. Leucyl tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) catalytic core domain. This class I enzyme is a monomer which aminoacylates the 2'-OH of the nucleotide at the 3' of the appropriate tRNA. The core domain is based on the Rossman fold and is responsible for the ATP-dependent formation of the enzyme bound aminoacyl-adenylate. It contains the characteristic class I HIGH and KMSKS motifs, which are involved in ATP binding. In Aquifex aeolicus, the gene encoding LeuRS is split in two, just before the KMSKS motif. Consequently, LeuRS is a heterodimer, which likely superimposes with the LeuRS monomer found in most other organisms. LeuRS has an insertion in the core domain, which is subject to both deletions and rearrangements and thus differs between prokaryotic LeuRS and archaeal/eukaryotic LeuRS. This editing region hydrolyzes mischarged cognate tRNAs and thus prevents the incorporation of chemically similar amino acids.
203136LRATpfam04970Lecithin retinol acyltransferase. The full-length members of this family are representatives of a novel class II tumour-suppressor family, designated as H-REV107-like. This domain is the catalytic N-terminal proline-rich region of the protein. The downstream region is a putative C-terminal transmembrane domain which is found to be crucial for cellular localisation, but not necessary for the enzyme activity. H-REV107-like proteins are homologous to lecithin retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the sn-1 acyl group of phosphatidylcholine to all-trans-retinol and forming a retinyl ester.
212030LysMcd00118Lysine Motif is a small domain involved in binding peptidoglycan. LysM, a small globular domain with approximately 40 amino acids, is a widespread protein module involved in binding peptidoglycan in bacteria and chitin in eukaryotes. The domain was originally identified in enzymes that degrade bacterial cell walls, but proteins involved in many other biological functions also contain this domain. It has been reported that the LysM domain functions as a signal for specific plant-bacteria recognition in bacterial pathogenesis. Many of these enzymes are modular and are composed of catalytic units linked to one or several repeats of LysM domains. LysM domains are found in bacteria and eukaryotes.
216634Macropfam01661Macro domain. This domain is an ADP-ribose binding module. It is found in a number of otherwise unrelated proteins. It is found at the C-terminus of the macro-H2A histone protein. This domain is found in the non-structural proteins of several types of ssRNA viruses such as NSP3 from alphaviruses. This domain is also found on its own in a family of proteins from bacteria, archaebacteria, and eukaryotes.
239234Macro_1cd02906Macro domain, Unknown family 1. The macro domain is a high-affinity ADP-ribose binding module found in a variety of proteins as a stand-alone domain or in combination with other domains like in histone macroH2A and some PARPs (poly ADP-ribose polymerases). Some macro domains recognize poly ADP-ribose as a ligand. Previously identified as displaying an Appr-1"-p (ADP-ribose-1"-monophosphate) processing activity, the macro domain may play roles in distinct ADP-ribose pathways, such as the ADP-ribosylation of proteins, an important post-translational modification which occurs in DNA repair, transcription, chromatin biology, and long-term memory formation, among other processes. This family is composed of uncharacterized proteins containing a macro domain, either as a stand-alone domain or in addition to a C-terminal SIR2 (silent information regulator 2) domain.
239446Macro_2cd03330Macro domain, Unknown family 2. The macro domain is a high-affinity ADP-ribose binding module found in a variety of proteins as a stand-alone domain or in combination with other domains like in histone macroH2A and some PARPs (poly ADP-ribose polymerases). Some macro domains recognize poly ADP-ribose as a ligand. Previously identified as displaying an Appr-1"-p (ADP-ribose-1"-monophosphate) processing activity, the macro domain may play roles in distinct ADP-ribose pathways, such as the ADP-ribosylation of proteins, an important post-translational modification which occurs in DNA repair, transcription, chromatin biology, and long-term memory formation, among other processes. This family is composed of uncharacterized proteins containing a stand-alone macro domain.
221577MAGE_Npfam12440Melanoma associated antigen family N terminal. This domain family is found in eukaryotes, and is typically between 82 and 96 amino acids in length. The family is found in association with pfam01454. This family is the N terminal of various melanoma associated antigens. These are tumour rejection antigens which are expressed on HLA-A1 of tumour cells and they are recognised by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs).
176178MDRcd05188Medium chain reductase/dehydrogenase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family. The medium chain reductase/dehydrogenases (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, which contains the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn) and related proteins, is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. MDRs display a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P) binding-Rossmann fold domain of a beta-alpha form and an N-terminal catalytic domain with distant homology to GroES. The MDR group contains a host of activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) , quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. ADH-like proteins typically form dimers (typically higher plants, mammals) or tetramers (yeast, bacteria), and generally have 2 tightly bound zinc atoms per subunit, a catalytic zinc at the active site and a structural zinc in a lobe of the catalytic domain. The active site zinc is coordinated by a histidine, two cysteines, and a water molecule. The second zinc seems to play a structural role, affects subunit interactions, and is typically coordinated by 4 cysteines. Other MDR members have only a catalytic zinc, and some contain no coordinated zinc.
176228MDR1cd08267Medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family. This group is a member of the medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, but lacks the zinc-binding sites of the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases. The medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, which contains the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn) and related proteins, is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. MDRs display a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P)-binding Rossmann fold domain of a beta-alpha form and an N-terminal catalytic domain with distant homology to GroES. The MDR group contains a host of activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. Active site zinc has a catalytic role, while structural zinc aids in stability. ADH-like proteins typically form dimers (typically higher plants, mammals) or tetramers (yeast, bacteria), and generally have 2 tightly bound zinc atoms per subunit. The active site zinc is coordinated by a histidine, two cysteines, and a water molecule. The second zinc seems to play a structural role, affects subunit interactions, and is typically coordinated by 4 cysteines.
176229MDR2cd08268Medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family. This group is a member of the medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, but lacks the zinc-binding sites of the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases. The medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, which contains the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn) and related proteins, is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. MDRs display a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P)-binding Rossmann fold domain of a beta-alpha form and an N-terminal catalytic domain with distant homology to GroES. The MDR group contains a host of activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. Active site zinc has a catalytic role, while structural zinc aids in stability. ADH-like proteins typically form dimers (typically higher plants, mammals) or tetramers (yeast, bacteria), and generally have 2 tightly bound zinc atoms per subunit. The active site zinc is coordinated by a histidine, two cysteines, and a water molecule. The second zinc seems to play a structural role, affects subunit interactions, and is typically coordinated by 4 cysteines.
176236MDR3cd08275Medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family. This group is a member of the medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, but lacks the zinc-binding sites of the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases. The medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, which contains the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn) and related proteins, is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. MDRs display a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P)-binding Rossmann fold domain of a beta-alpha form and an N-terminal catalytic domain with distant homology to GroES. The MDR group contains a host of activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. Active site zinc has a catalytic role, while structural zinc aids in stability. ADH-like proteins typically form dimers (typically higher plants, mammals) or tetramers (yeast, bacteria), and generally have 2 tightly bound zinc atoms per subunit. The active site zinc is coordinated by a histidine, two cysteines, and a water molecule. The second zinc seems to play a structural role, affects subunit interactions, and is typically coordinated by 4 cysteines.
176231MDR4cd08270Medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family. This group is a member of the medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, but lacks the zinc-binding sites of the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases. The medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, which contains the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn) and related proteins, is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. MDRs display a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P)-binding Rossmann fold domain of a beta-alpha form and an N-terminal catalytic domain with distant homology to GroES. The MDR group contains a host of activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. Active site zinc has a catalytic role, while structural zinc aids in stability. ADH-like proteins typically form dimers (typically higher plants, mammals) or tetramers (yeast, bacteria), and generally have 2 tightly bound zinc atoms per subunit. The active site zinc is coordinated by a histidine, two cysteines, and a water molecule. The second zinc seems to play a structural role, affects subunit interactions, and is typically coordinated by 4 cysteines.
176232MDR5cd08271Medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family. This group is a member of the medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, but lacks the zinc-binding sites of the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases. The medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, which contains the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn) and related proteins, is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. MDRs display a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P)-binding Rossmann fold domain of a beta-alpha form and an N-terminal catalytic domain with distant homology to GroES. The MDR group contains a host of activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. Active site zinc has a catalytic role, while structural zinc aids in stability. ADH-like proteins typically form dimers (typically higher plants, mammals) or tetramers (yeast, bacteria), and generally have 2 tightly bound zinc atoms per subunit. The active site zinc is coordinated by a histidine, two cysteines, and a water molecule. The second zinc seems to play a structural role, affects subunit interactions, and is typically coordinated by 4 cysteines.
176233MDR6cd08272Medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family. This group is a member of the medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, but lacks the zinc-binding sites of the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases. The medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, which contains the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn) and related proteins, is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. MDRs display a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P)-binding Rossmann fold domain of a beta-alpha form and an N-terminal catalytic domain with distant homology to GroES. The MDR group contains a host of activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. Active site zinc has a catalytic role, while structural zinc aids in stability. ADH-like proteins typically form dimers (typically higher plants, mammals) or tetramers (yeast, bacteria), and generally have 2 tightly bound zinc atoms per subunit. The active site zinc is coordinated by a histidine, two cysteines, and a water molecule. The second zinc seems to play a structural role, affects subunit interactions, and is typically coordinated by 4 cysteines.
176237MDR7cd08276Medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family. This group is a member of the medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, but lacks the zinc-binding sites of the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases. The medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, which contains the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn) and related proteins, is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. MDRs display a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P)-binding Rossmann fold domain of a beta-alpha form and an N-terminal catalytic domain with distant homology to GroES. The MDR group contains a host of activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. Active site zinc has a catalytic role, while structural zinc aids in stability. ADH-like proteins typically form dimers (typically higher plants, mammals) or tetramers (yeast, bacteria), and generally have 2 tightly bound zinc atoms per subunit. The active site zinc is coordinated by a histidine, two cysteines, and a water molecule. The second zinc seems to play a structural role, affects subunit interactions, and is typically coordinated by 4 cysteines.
176234MDR8cd08273Medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family. This group is a member of the medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, but lacks the zinc-binding sites of the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases. The medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, which contains the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn) and related proteins, is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. MDRs display a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P)-binding Rossmann fold domain of a beta-alpha form and an N-terminal catalytic domain with distant homology to GroES. The MDR group contains a host of activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. Active site zinc has a catalytic role, while structural zinc aids in stability. ADH-like proteins typically form dimers (typically higher plants, mammals) or tetramers (yeast, bacteria), and generally have 2 tightly bound zinc atoms per subunit. The active site zinc is coordinated by a histidine, two cysteines, and a water molecule. The second zinc seems to play a structural role, affects subunit interactions, and is typically coordinated by 4 cysteines.
176235MDR9cd08274Medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family. This group is a member of the medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, but lacks the zinc-binding sites of the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases. The medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, which contains the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn) and related proteins, is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. MDRs display a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P)-binding Rossmann fold domain of a beta-alpha form and an N-terminal catalytic domain with distant homology to GroES. The MDR group contains a host of activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. Active site zinc has a catalytic role, while structural zinc aids in stability. ADH-like proteins typically form dimers (typically higher plants, mammals) or tetramers (yeast, bacteria), and generally have 2 tightly bound zinc atoms per subunit. The active site zinc is coordinated by a histidine, two cysteines, and a water molecule. The second zinc seems to play a structural role, affects subunit interactions, and is typically coordinated by 4 cysteines.
176204MDR_likecd08242Medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family. This group contains members identified as related to zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase and other members of the MDR family, including threonine dehydrogenase. The medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, which contains the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn) and related proteins, is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. MDRs display a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P) binding-Rossmann fold domain of a beta-alpha form and an N-terminal catalytic domain with distant homology to GroES. The MDR group includes various activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. Active site zinc has a catalytic role, while structural zinc aids in stability. ADH-like proteins typically form dimers (typically higher plants, mammals) or tetramers (yeast, bacteria), and generally have 2 tightly bound zinc atoms per subunit. The active site zinc is coordinated by a histidine, two cysteines, and a water molecule. The second zinc seems to play a structural role, affects subunit interactions, and is typically coordinated by 4 cysteines.
176193MDR_TM0436_likecd08231Hypothetical enzyme TM0436 resembles the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH). This group contains the hypothetical TM0436 alcohol dehydrogenase from Thermotoga maritima, proteins annotated as 5-exo-alcohol dehydrogenase, and other members of the medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family. MDR, which contains the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn) and related proteins, is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. MDRs display a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P) binding-Rossmann fold domain of a beta-alpha form and an N-terminal catalytic domain with distant homology to GroES. The MDR group contains a host of activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. Active site zinc has a catalytic role, while structural zinc aids in stability.
176801MeNeil1_Ncd08967N-terminal domain of metazoan Nei-like glycosylase 1 (NEIL1). This family contains the N-terminal domain of metazoan NEIL1. It belongs to the FpgNei_N, [N-terminal domain of Fpg (formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase, MutM)_Nei (endonuclease VIII)] domain superfamily. DNA glycosylases maintain genome integrity by recognizing base lesions created by ionizing radiation, alkylating or oxidizing agents, and endogenous reactive oxygen species. They initiate the base-excision repair process, which is completed with the help of enzymes such as phosphodiesterases, AP endonucleases, DNA polymerases and DNA ligases. DNA glycosylases cleave the N-glycosyl bond between the sugar and the damaged base, creating an AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic) site. Most FpgNei DNA glycosylases use their N-terminal proline residue as the key catalytic nucleophile, and the reaction proceeds via a Schiff base intermediate. NEIL1 recognizes the oxidized pyrimidines 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyG) and 4,6-diamino- 5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyA), thymine glycol (Tg) and 5-hydroxyuracil (5-OHU). However, even though it has weak activity on 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG), it does show strong preference for the products of its further oxidation: spiroiminodihydantoin and guanidinohydantoin. In addition to this MeNeil1_N domain, enzymes belonging to this family contain a helix-two turn-helix (H2TH) domain and a zincless finger motif. This characteristic "zincless finger" motif, is a structural equivalent of the zinc finger common to other members of the Fpg/Nei family. Neil1 is one of three homologs found in eukaryotes and its lineage extends back as far as early metazoans.
176802MeNeil2_Ncd08968N-terminal domain of metazoan Nei-like glycosylase 2 (NEIL2). This family contains the N-terminal domain of the metazoan protein Neil2. It belongs to the FpgNei_N, [N-terminal domain of Fpg (formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase, MutM)_Nei (endonuclease VIII)] domain superfamily. DNA glycosylases maintain genome integrity by recognizing base lesions created by ionizing radiation, alkylating or oxidizing agents, and endogenous reactive oxygen species. They initiate the base-excision repair process, which is completed with the help of enzymes such as phosphodiesterases, AP endonucleases, DNA polymerases and DNA ligases. DNA glycosylases cleave the N-glycosyl bond between the sugar and the damaged base, creating an AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic) site. Most FpgNei DNA glycosylases use their N-terminal proline residue as the key catalytic nucleophile, and the reaction proceeds via a Schiff base intermediate. NEIL2 repairs 5-hydroxyuracil (5-OHU) and other oxidized derivatives of cytosine, but it shows preference for DNA bubble structures. In addition to this MeNeil2_N domain, NEIL2 contains a helix-two turn-helix (H2TH) domain and a characteristic CHCC zinc finger motif. Neil2 is one of three homologs found in eukaryotes.
176803MeNeil3_Ncd08969N-terminal domain of metazoan Nei-like glycosylase 3 (NEIL3). This family contains the N-terminal domain of the Metazoan Neil3. It belongs to the FpgNei_N, [N-terminal domain of Fpg (formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase, MutM)_Nei (endonuclease VIII)] domain superfamily. DNA glycosylases maintain genome integrity by recognizing base lesions created by ionizing radiation, alkylating or oxidizing agents, and endogenous reactive oxygen species. They initiate the base-excision repair process, which is completed with the help of enzymes such as phosphodiesterases, AP endonucleases, DNA polymerases and DNA ligases. DNA glycosylases cleave the N-glycosyl bond between the sugar and the damaged base, creating an AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic) site. Most FpgNei DNA glycosylases use their N-terminal proline residue as the key catalytic nucleophile, and the reaction proceeds via a Schiff base intermediate. In contrast, mouse NEIL3 (MmuNEIL3) forms a Schiff base intermediate via its N-terminal valine. The latter is a functional DNA glycosylase in vitro and in vivo. MmuNEIL3 prefers lesions in single-stranded DNA and in bubble structures. In duplex DNA, it recognizes the oxidized purines spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp), guanidinohydantoin (Gh), 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyG) and 4,6-diamino-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyA), but not 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG). Since the expression of the MmuNeil3 glycosylase domain (MmuNeil3delta324) reduces both the high spontaneous mutation frequency and the FapyG level in a Escherichia coli mutant lacking Fpg, Nei and MutY glycosylase activites, NEIL3 may play a role in repairing FapyG in vivo. In addition to this MeNeil3_N domain, enzymes belonging to this family contain a helix-two turn-helix (H2TH) domain and a zinc finger motif, plus a characteristic C-terminal extension that contains additional zinc fingers. Neil3 is one of three homologs found in eukaryotes.
163686MPNcd07767Mpr1p, Pad1p N-terminal (MPN) domains. MPN (also known as Mov34, PAD-1, JAMM, JAB, MPN+) domains are found in the N-terminal termini of proteins with a variety of functions; they are components of the proteasome regulatory subunits, the signalosome (CSN), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) complexes, and regulators of transcription factors. These domains are isopeptidases that release ubiquitin from ubiquitinated proteins (thus having deubiquitinating (DUB) activity) that are tagged for degradation. Catalytically active MPN domains contain a metalloprotease signature known as the JAB1/MPN/Mov34 metalloenzyme (JAMM) motif. For example, Rpn11 (also known as POH1 or PSMD14), a subunit of the 19S proteasome lid is involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins, contains the conserved JAMM motif involved in zinc ion coordination. Poh1 is a regulator of c-Jun, an important regulator of cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and death. JAB1 is a component of the COP9 signalosome (CSN), a regulatory particle of the ubiquitin (Ub)/26S proteasome system occurring in all eukaryotic cells; it cleaves the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 from the cullin subunit of the SCF (Skp1, Cullins, F-box proteins) family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. AMSH (associated molecule with the SH3 domain of STAM, also known as STAMBP), a member of JAMM/MPN+ deubiquitinases (DUBs), specifically cleaves Lys 63-linked polyubiquitin (poly-Ub) chains, thus facilitating the recycling and subsequent trafficking of receptors to the cell surface. Similarly, BRCC36, part of the nuclear complex that includes BRCA1 protein and is targeted to DNA damage foci after irradiation, specifically disassembles K63-linked polyUb. BRCC36 is aberrantly expressed in sporadic breast tumors, indicative of a potential role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Some variants of the JAB1/MPN domains lack key residues in their JAMM motif and are unable to coordinate a metal ion. Comparisons of key catalytic and metal binding residues explain why the MPN-containing proteins Mov34/PSMD7, Rpn8, CSN6, Prp8p, and the translation initiation factor 3 subunits f (p47) and h (p40) do not show catalytic isopeptidase activity. It has been proposed that the MPN domain in these proteins has a primarily structural function.
163689MPN_euk_mbcd08058Mpr1p, Pad1p N-terminal (MPN) domains with catalytic isopeptidase activity (metal-binding); eukaryotic. This family contains eukaryotic MPN (also known as Mov34, PAD-1, JAMM, JAB, MPN+) domains found in proteins with a variety of functions, including AMSH (associated molecule with the Src homology 3 domain (SH3) of STAM), H2A-DUB (histone H2A deubiquitinase), BRCC36 (BRCA1/BRCA2-containing complex subunit 36), as well as Rpn11 (regulatory particle number 11) and CSN5 (COP9 signalosome complex subunit 5). These domains contain the signature JAB1/MPN/Mov34 metalloenzyme (JAMM) motif, EXnHS/THX7SXXD, which is involved in zinc ion coordination and provides the active site for isopeptidase activity. Rpn11 is responsible for substrate deubiquitination during proteasomal degradation. It is essential for maintaining a correct cell cycle and normal mitochondrial morphology and physiology. CSN5 is critical for nuclear export and the degradation of several tumor suppressor proteins, including p53, p27, and Smad4. Over-expression of CSN5 has been implicated in cancer initiation and progression. AMSH specifically cleaves Lys 63 and not Lys48-linked polyubiquitin (poly-Ub) chains, thus facilitating the recycling and subsequent trafficking of receptors to the cell surface. It is involved in the degradation of EGF receptor (EGFR) and possibly other ubiquitinated endocytosed proteins. BRCC36 is part of the BRCA1/BRCA2/BARD1-containing nuclear complex that displays an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity; it is targeted to DNA damage foci after irradiation. 2A-DUB is specific for monoubiquitinated H2A (uH2A), regulating transcription by coordinating histone acetylation and deubiquitination, and destabilizing the association of linker histone H1 with nucleosomes. It is a positive regulator of androgen receptor (AR) transactivation activity on a reporter gene and serves as a marker in prostate tumors.
163662MPP_Bsu1_Ccd07419Arabidopsis thaliana Bsu1 phosphatase and related proteins, C-terminal metallophosphatase domain. Bsu1 encodes a nuclear serine-threonine protein phosphatase found in plants and protozoans. Bsu1 has a C-terminal phosphatase domain and an N-terminal Kelch-repeat domain. Bsu1 is preferentially expressed in elongating plant cells. It modulates the phosphorylation state of Bes1, a transcriptional regulator phosphorylated by the glycogen synthase kinase Bin2, as part of a steroid hormone signal transduction pathway. The PPP (phosphoprotein phosphatase) family, to which Bsu1 belongs, is one of two known protein phosphatase families specific for serine and threonine. The PPP family also includes: PP1, PP2A, PP2B (calcineurin), PP4, PP5, PP6, PP7, Bsu1, RdgC, PrpE, PrpA/PrpB, and ApA4 hydrolase. The PPP catalytic domain is defined by three conserved motifs (-GDXHG-, -GDXVDRG- and -GNHE-). The PPP enzyme family is ancient with members found in all eukaryotes, and in most bacterial and archeal genomes. Dephosphorylation of phosphoserines and phosphothreonines on target proteins plays a central role in the regulation of many cellular processes. PPPs belong to the metallophosphatase (MPP) superfamily. MPPs are functionally diverse, but all share a conserved domain with an active site consisting of two metal ions (usually manganese, iron, or zinc) coordinated with octahedral geometry by a cage of histidine, aspartate, and asparagine residues. The MPP superfamily includes: Mre11/SbcD-like exonucleases, Dbr1-like RNA lariat debranching enzymes, YfcE-like phosphodiesterases, purple acid phosphatases (PAPs), YbbF-like UDP-2,3-diacylglucosamine hydrolases, and acid sphingomyelinases (ASMases). The conserved domain is a double beta-sheet sandwich with a di-metal active site made up of residues located at the C-terminal side of the sheets. This domain is thought to allow for productive metal coordination.
163623MPP_CWF19_Ncd07380Schizosaccharomyces pombe CWF19 and related proteins, N-terminal metallophosphatase domain. CWF19 cell cycle control protein (also known as CWF19-like 1 (CWF19L1) in Homo sapiens), N-terminal metallophosphatase domain. CWF19 contains C-terminal domains similar to that found in the CwfJ cell cycle control protein. The metallophosphatase domain belongs to the metallophosphatase (MPP) superfamily. MPPs are functionally diverse, but all share a conserved domain with an active site consisting of two metal ions (usually manganese, iron, or zinc) coordinated with octahedral geometry by a cage of histidine, aspartate, and asparagine residues. The MPP superfamily includes: Mre11/SbcD-like exonucleases, Dbr1-like RNA lariat debranching enzymes, YfcE-like phosphodiesterases, purple acid phosphatases (PAPs), YbbF-like UDP-2,3-diacylglucosamine hydrolases, and acid sphingomyelinases (ASMases). The conserved domain is a double beta-sheet sandwich with a di-metal active site made up of residues located at the C-terminal side of the sheets. This domain is thought to allow for productive metal coordination.
163616MPP_Mre11_Ncd00840Mre11 nuclease, N-terminal metallophosphatase domain. Mre11 (also known as SbcD in Escherichia coli) is a subunit of the MRX protein complex. This complex includes: Mre11, Rad50, and Xrs2/Nbs1, and plays a vital role in several nuclear processes including DNA double-strand break repair, telomere length maintenance, cell cycle checkpoint control, and meiotic recombination, in eukaryotes. During double-strand break repair, the MRX complex is required to hold the two ends of a broken chromosome together. In vitro studies show that Mre11 has 3'-5' exonuclease activity on dsDNA templates and endonuclease activity on dsDNA and ssDNA templates. In addition to the N-terminal phosphatase domain, the eukaryotic MRE11 members of this family have a C-terminal DNA binding domain (not included in this alignment model). MRE11-like proteins are found in prokaryotes and archaea was well as in eukaryotes. Mre11 belongs to the metallophosphatase (MPP) superfamily. MPPs are functionally diverse, but all share a conserved domain with an active site consisting of two metal ions (usually manganese, iron, or zinc) coordinated with octahedral geometry by a cage of histidine, aspartate, and asparagine residues. The MPP superfamily includes: Mre11/SbcD-like exonucleases, Dbr1-like RNA lariat debranching enzymes, YfcE-like phosphodiesterases, purple acid phosphatases (PAPs), YbbF-like UDP-2,3-diacylglucosamine hydrolases, and acid sphingomyelinases (ASMases). The conserved domain is a double beta-sheet sandwich with a di-metal active site made up of residues located at the C-terminal side of the sheets. This domain is thought to allow for productive metal coordination.
163657MPP_PP1_PPKLcd07414PP1, PPKL (PP1 and kelch-like) enzymes, and related proteins, metallophosphatase domain. PP1 (protein phosphatase type 1) is a serine/threonine phosphatase that regulates many cellular processes including: cell-cycle progression, protein synthesis, muscle contraction, carbohydrate metabolism, transcription and neuronal signaling, through its interaction with at least 180 known targeting proteins. PP1 occurs in all tissues and regulates many pathways, ranging from cell-cycle progression to carbohydrate metabolism. Also included here are the PPKL (PP1 and kelch-like) enzymes including the PPQ, PPZ1, and PPZ2 fungal phosphatases. These PPKLs have a large N-terminal kelch repeat in addition to a C-terminal phosphoesterase domain. The PPP (phosphoprotein phosphatase) family, to which PP1 belongs, is one of two known protein phosphatase families specific for serine and threonine. The PPP family also includes: PP2A, PP2B (calcineurin), PP4, PP5, PP6, PP7, Bsu1, RdgC, PrpE, PrpA/PrpB, and ApA4 hydrolase. The PPP catalytic domain is defined by three conserved motifs (-GDXHG-, -GDXVDRG- and -GNHE-). The PPP enzyme family is ancient with members found in all eukaryotes, and in most bacterial and archeal genomes. Dephosphorylation of phosphoserines and phosphothreonines on target proteins plays a central role in the regulation of many cellular processes. PPPs belong to the metallophosphatase (MPP) superfamily. MPPs are functionally diverse, but all share a conserved domain with an active site consisting of two metal ions (usually manganese, iron, or zinc) coordinated with octahedral geometry by a cage of histidine, aspartate, and asparagine residues. The MPP superfamily includes: Mre11/SbcD-like exonucleases, Dbr1-like RNA lariat debranching enzymes, YfcE-like phosphodiesterases, purple acid phosphatases (PAPs), YbbF-like UDP-2,3-diacylglucosamine hydrolases, and acid sphingomyelinases (ASMases). The conserved domain is a double beta-sheet sandwich with a di-metal active site made up of residues located at the C-terminal side of the sheets. This domain is thought to allow for productive metal coordination.
163658MPP_PP2A_PP4_PP6cd07415PP2A, PP4, and PP6 phosphoprotein phosphatases, metallophosphatase domain. PP2A-like family of phosphoprotein phosphatases (PPP's) including PP4 and PP6. PP2A (Protein phosphatase 2A) is a critical regulator of many cellular activities. PP2A comprises about 1% of total cellular proteins. PP2A, together with protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), accounts for more than 90% of all serine/threonine phosphatase activities in most cells and tissues. The PP2A subunit in addition to having a catalytic domain homologous to PP1, has a unique C-terminal tail, containing a motif that is conserved in the catalytic subunits of all PP2A-like phosphatases including PP4 and PP6, and has an important role in PP2A regulation. The PP2A-like family of phosphatases all share a similar heterotrimeric architecture, that includes: a 65kDa scaffolding subunit (A), a 36kDa catalytic subunit (C), and one of 18 regulatory subunits (B). The PPP (phosphoprotein phosphatase) family, to which PP2A belongs, is one of two known protein phosphatase families specific for serine and threonine. The PPP family also includes: PP1, PP2B (calcineurin), PP4, PP5, PP6, PP7, Bsu1, RdgC, PrpE, PrpA/PrpB, and ApA4 hydrolase. The PPP catalytic domain is defined by three conserved motifs (-GDXHG-, -GDXVDRG- and -GNHE-). The PPP enzyme family is ancient with members found in all eukaryotes, and in most bacterial and archeal genomes. Dephosphorylation of phosphoserines and phosphothreonines on target proteins plays a central role in the regulation of many cellular processes. PPPs belong to the metallophosphatase (MPP) superfamily. MPPs are functionally diverse, but all share a conserved domain with an active site consisting of two metal ions (usually manganese, iron, or zinc) coordinated with octahedral geometry by a cage of histidine, aspartate, and asparagine residues. The MPP superfamily includes: Mre11/SbcD-like exonucleases, Dbr1-like RNA lariat debranching enzymes, YfcE-like phosphodiesterases, purple acid phosphatases (PAPs), YbbF-like UDP-2,3-diacylglucosamine hydrolases, and acid sphingomyelinases (ASMases). The conserved domain is a double beta-sheet sandwich with a di-metal active site made up of residues located at the C-terminal side of the sheets. This domain is thought to allow for productive metal coordination.
163659MPP_PP2Bcd07416PP2B, metallophosphatase domain. PP2B (calcineurin) is a unique serine/threonine protein phosphatase in its regulation by a second messenger (calcium and calmodulin). PP2B is involved in many biological processes including immune responses, the second messenger cAMP pathway, sodium/potassium ion transport in the nephron, cell cycle progression in lower eukaryotes, cardiac hypertrophy, and memory formation. PP2B is highly conserved from yeast to humans, but is absent from plants. PP2B is a heterodimer consisting of a catalytic subunit (CnA) and a regulatory subunit (CnB); CnB contains four Ca2+ binding motifs referred to as EF hands. The PPP (phosphoprotein phosphatase) family, to which PP2B belongs, is one of two known protein phosphatase families specific for serine and threonine. The PPP family also includes: PP1, PP2A, PP4, PP5, PP6, PP7, Bsu1, RdgC, PrpE, PrpA/PrpB, and ApA4 hydrolase. The PPP catalytic domain is defined by three conserved motifs (-GDXHG-, -GDXVDRG- and -GNHE-). The PPP enzyme family is ancient with members found in all eukaryotes, and in most bacterial and archeal genomes. Dephosphorylation of phosphoserines and phosphothreonines on target proteins plays a central role in the regulation of many cellular processes. PPPs belong to the metallophosphatase (MPP) superfamily. MPPs are functionally diverse, but all share a conserved domain with an active site consisting of two metal ions (usually manganese, iron, or zinc) coordinated with octahedral geometry by a cage of histidine, aspartate, and asparagine residues. The MPP superfamily includes: Mre11/SbcD-like exonucleases, Dbr1-like RNA lariat debranching enzymes, YfcE-like phosphodiesterases, purple acid phosphatases (PAPs), YbbF-like UDP-2,3-diacylglucosamine hydrolases, and acid sphingomyelinases (ASMases). The conserved domain is a double beta-sheet sandwich with a di-metal active site made up of residues located at the C-terminal side of the sheets. This domain is thought to allow for productive metal coordination.
163660MPP_PP5_Ccd07417PP5, C-terminal metallophosphatase domain. Serine/threonine protein phosphatase-5 (PP5) is a member of the PPP gene family of protein phosphatases that is highly conserved among eukaryotes and widely expressed in mammalian tissues. PP5 has a C-terminal phosphatase domain and an extended N-terminal TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) domain containing three TPR motifs. The PPP (phosphoprotein phosphatase) family, to which PP5 belongs, is one of two known protein phosphatase families specific for serine and threonine. The PPP family also includes: PP1, PP2A, PP2B (calcineurin), PP4, PP6, PP7, Bsu1, RdgC, PrpE, PrpA/PrpB, and ApA4 hydrolase. The PPP catalytic domain is defined by three conserved motifs (-GDXHG-, -GDXVDRG- and -GNHE-). The PPP enzyme family is ancient with members found in all eukaryotes, and in most bacterial and archeal genomes. Dephosphorylation of phosphoserines and phosphothreonines on target proteins plays a central role in the regulation of many cellular processes. PPPs belong to the metallophosphatase (MPP) superfamily. MPPs are functionally diverse, but all share a conserved domain with an active site consisting of two metal ions (usually manganese, iron, or zinc) coordinated with octahedral geometry by a cage of histidine, aspartate, and asparagine residues. The MPP superfamily includes: Mre11/SbcD-like exonucleases, Dbr1-like RNA lariat debranching enzymes, YfcE-like phosphodiesterases, purple acid phosphatases (PAPs), YbbF-like UDP-2,3-diacylglucosamine hydrolases, and acid sphingomyelinases (ASMases). The conserved domain is a double beta-sheet sandwich with a di-metal active site made up of residues located at the C-terminal side of the sheets. This domain is thought to allow for productive metal coordination.
163661MPP_PP7cd07418PP7, metallophosphatase domain. PP7 is a plant phosphoprotein phosphatase that is highly expressed in a subset of stomata and thought to play an important role in sensory signaling. PP7 acts as a positive regulator of signaling downstream of cryptochrome blue light photoreceptors. PP7 also controls amplification of phytochrome signaling, and interacts with nucleotidediphosphate kinase 2 (NDPK2), a positive regulator of phytochrome signalling. In addition, PP7 interacts with heat shock transcription factor HSF and up-regulates protective heat shock proteins. PP7 may also play a role in salicylic acid-dependent defense signaling. The PPP (phosphoprotein phosphatase) family, to which PP7 belongs, is one of two known protein phosphatase families specific for serine and threonine. The PPP family also includes: PP2A, PP2B (calcineurin), PP4, PP5, PP6, Bsu1, RdgC, PrpE, PrpA/PrpB, and ApA4 hydrolase. The PPP catalytic domain is defined by three conserved motifs (-GDXHG-, -GDXVDRG- and -GNHE-). The PPP enzyme family is ancient with members found in all eukaryotes, and in most bacterial and archeal genomes. Dephosphorylation of phosphoserines and phosphothreonines on target proteins plays a central role in the regulation of many cellular processes. PPPs belong to the metallophosphatase (MPP) superfamily. MPPs are functionally diverse, but all share a conserved domain with an active site consisting of two metal ions (usually manganese, iron, or zinc) coordinated with octahedral geometry by a cage of histidine, aspartate, and asparagine residues. The MPP superfamily includes: Mre11/SbcD-like exonucleases, Dbr1-like RNA lariat debranching enzymes, YfcE-like phosphodiesterases, purple acid phosphatases (PAPs), YbbF-like UDP-2,3-diacylglucosamine hydrolases, and acid sphingomyelinases (ASMases). The conserved domain is a double beta-sheet sandwich with a di-metal active site made up of residues located at the C-terminal side of the sheets. This domain is thought to allow for productive metal coordination.
163613MPP_PPP_familycd00144phosphoprotein phosphatases of the metallophosphatase superfamily, metallophosphatase domain. The PPP (phosphoprotein phosphatase) family is one of two known protein phosphatase families specific for serine and threonine. This family includes: PP1, PP2A, PP2B (calcineurin), PP4, PP5, PP6, PP7, Bsu1, RdgC, PrpE, PrpA/PrpB, and ApA4 hydrolase. The PPP catalytic domain is defined by three conserved motifs (-GDXHG-, -GDXVDRG- and -GNHE-). The PPP enzyme family is ancient with members found in all eukaryotes, and in most bacterial and archeal genomes. Dephosphorylation of phosphoserines and phosphothreonines on target proteins plays a central role in the regulation of many cellular processes. PPPs belong to the metallophosphatase (MPP) superfamily. MPPs are functionally diverse, but all share a conserved domain with an active site consisting of two metal ions (usually manganese, iron, or zinc) coordinated with octahedral geometry by a cage of histidine, aspartate, and asparagine residues. The MPP superfamily includes: Mre11/SbcD-like exonucleases, Dbr1-like RNA lariat debranching enzymes, YfcE-like phosphodiesterases, purple acid phosphatases (PAPs), YbbF-like UDP-2,3-diacylglucosamine hydrolases, and acid sphingomyelinases (ASMases). The conserved domain is a double beta-sheet sandwich with a di-metal active site made up of residues located at the C-terminal side of the sheets. This domain is thought to allow for productive metal coordination.
163667MPP_PrpA_PrpBcd07424PrpA and PrpB, metallophosphatase domain. PrpA and PrpB are bacterial type I serine/threonine and tyrosine phosphatases thought to modulate the expression of proteins that protect the cell upon accumulation of misfolded proteins in the periplasm. The PPP (phosphoprotein phosphatase) family, to which PrpA and PrpB belong, is one of two known protein phosphatase families specific for serine and threonine. This family also includes: PP1, PP2A, PP2B (calcineurin), PP4, PP5, PP6, PP7, Bsu1, RdgC, PrpE, and ApA4 hydrolase. The PPP catalytic domain is defined by three conserved motifs (-GDXHG-, -GDXVDRG- and -GNHE-). The PPP enzyme family is ancient with members found in all eukaryotes, and in most bacterial and archeal genomes. Dephosphorylation of phosphoserines and phosphothreonines on target proteins plays a central role in the regulation of many cellular processes. PPPs belong to the metallophosphatase (MPP) superfamily. MPPs are functionally diverse, but all share a conserved domain with an active site consisting of two metal ions (usually manganese, iron, or zinc) coordinated with octahedral geometry by a cage of histidine, aspartate, and asparagine residues. The MPP superfamily includes: Mre11/SbcD-like exonucleases, Dbr1-like RNA lariat debranching enzymes, YfcE-like phosphodiesterases, purple acid phosphatases (PAPs), YbbF-like UDP-2,3-diacylglucosamine hydrolases, and acid sphingomyelinases (ASMases). The conserved domain is a double beta-sheet sandwich with a di-metal active site made up of residues located at the C-terminal side of the sheets. This domain is thought to allow for productive metal coordination.
163663MPP_RdgCcd07420Drosophila melanogaster RdgC and related proteins, metallophosphatase domain. RdgC (retinal degeneration C) is a vertebrate serine-threonine protein phosphatase that is required to prevent light-induced retinal degeneration. In addition to its catalytic domain, RdgC has two C-terminal EF hands. Homologs of RdgC include the human phosphatases protein phosphatase with EF hands 1 and -2 (PPEF-1 and -2). PPEF-1 transcripts are present at low levels in the retina, PPEF-2 transcripts and PPEF-2 protein are present at high levels in photoreceptors. The PPP (phosphoprotein phosphatase) family, to which RdgC belongs, is one of two known protein phosphatase families specific for serine and threonine. The PPP family also includes: PP1, PP2A, PP2B (calcineurin), PP4, PP5, PP6, PP7, Bsu1, PrpE, PrpA/PrpB, and ApA4 hydrolase. The PPP catalytic domain is defined by three conserved motifs (-GDXHG-, -GDXVDRG- and -GNHE-). The PPP enzyme family is ancient with members found in all eukaryotes, and in most bacterial and archeal genomes. Dephosphorylation of phosphoserines and phosphothreonines on target proteins plays a central role in the regulation of many cellular processes. PPPs belong to the metallophosphatase (MPP) superfamily. MPPs are functionally diverse, but all share a conserved domain with an active site consisting of two metal ions (usually manganese, iron, or zinc) coordinated with octahedral geometry by a cage of histidine, aspartate, and asparagine residues. The MPP superfamily includes: Mre11/SbcD-like exonucleases, Dbr1-like RNA lariat debranching enzymes, YfcE-like phosphodiesterases, purple acid phosphatases (PAPs), YbbF-like UDP-2,3-diacylglucosamine hydrolases, and acid sphingomyelinases (ASMases). The conserved domain is a double beta-sheet sandwich with a di-metal active site made up of residues located at the C-terminal side of the sheets. This domain is thought to allow for productive metal coordination.
163668MPP_Shelphscd07425Shewanella-like phosphatases, metallophosphatase domain. This family includes bacterial, eukaryotic, and archeal proteins orthologous to the Shewanella cold-active protein-tyrosine phosphatase, CAPTPase. CAPTPase is an uncharacterized protein that belongs to the Shelph (Shewanella-like phosphatase) family of PPP (phosphoprotein phosphatases). The PPP family is one of two known protein phosphatase families specific for serine and threonine. In addition to Shelps, the PPP family also includes: PP1, PP2A, PP2B (calcineurin), PP4, PP5, PP6, PP7, Bsu1, RdgC, PrpE, PrpA/PrpB, and ApA4 hydrolase. The PPP catalytic domain is defined by three conserved motifs (-GDXHG-, -GDXVDRG- and -GNHE-). The PPP enzyme family is ancient with members found in all eukaryotes, and in most bacterial and archeal genomes. Dephosphorylation of phosphoserines and phosphothreonines on target proteins plays a central role in the regulation of many cellular processes. PPPs belong to the metallophosphatase (MPP) superfamily. MPPs are functionally diverse, but all share a conserved domain with an active site consisting of two metal ions (usually manganese, iron, or zinc) coordinated with octahedral geometry by a cage of histidine, aspartate, and asparagine residues. The MPP superfamily includes: Mre11/SbcD-like exonucleases, Dbr1-like RNA lariat debranching enzymes, YfcE-like phosphodiesterases, purple acid phosphatases (PAPs), YbbF-like UDP-2,3-diacylglucosamine hydrolases, and acid sphingomyelinases (ASMases). The conserved domain is a double beta-sheet sandwich with a di-metal active site made up of residues located at the C-terminal side of the sheets. This domain is thought to allow for productive metal coordination.
99898MSH6_likecd05837The PWWP domain is present in MSH6, a mismatch repair protein homologous to bacterial MutS. The PWWP domain of histone-lysine N-methyltransferase, also known as Nuclear SET domain-containing protein 3, is also included. Mutations in MSH6 have been linked to increased cancer susceptibility, particularly in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer in humans. The role of the PWWP domain in MSH6 is not clear; MSH6 orthologs found in S. cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans and Arabidopsis thaliana lack the PWWP domain. Histone methyltransferases (HMTases) induce the posttranslational methylation of lysine residues in histones and play a role in apoptosis. In the HMTase Whistle, the PWWP domain is necessary for HMTase activity. The PWWP domain, named for a conserved Pro-Trp-Trp-Pro motif, is a small domain consisting of 100-150 amino acids. The PWWP domain is found in numerous proteins that are involved in cell division, growth and differentiation. Most PWWP-domain proteins seem to be nuclear, often DNA-binding, proteins that function as transcription factors regulating a variety of developmental processes.
99903MUM1_likecd06080Mutated melanoma-associated antigen 1 (MUM-1) is a melanoma-associated antigen (MAA). MUM-1 belongs to the mutated or aberrantly expressed type of MAAs, along with antigens such as CDK4, beta-catenin, gp100-in4, p15, and N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V. It is highly expressed in several types of human cancers. The PWWP domain, named for a conserved Pro-Trp-Trp-Pro motif, is a small domain consisting of 100-150 amino acids. The PWWP domain is found in numerous proteins that are involved in cell division, growth and differentiation. Most PWWP-domain proteins seem to be nuclear, often DNA-binding, proteins that function as transcription factors regulating a variety of developmental processes.
133454NAD_bind_1_malic_enzcd05312NAD(P) binding domain of malic enzyme (ME), subgroup 1. Malic enzyme (ME), a member of the amino acid dehydrogenase (DH)-like domain family, catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of L-malate to pyruvate in the presence of cations (typically Mg++ or Mn++) with the concomitant reduction of cofactor NAD+ or NADP+. ME has been found in all organisms, and plays important roles in diverse metabolic pathways such as photosynthesis and lipogenesis. This enzyme generally forms homotetramers. The conversion of malate to pyruvate by ME typically involves oxidation of malate to produce oxaloacetate, followed by decarboxylation of oxaloacetate to produce pyruvate and CO2. This subfamily consists of eukaryotic and bacterial ME. Amino acid DH-like NAD(P)-binding domains are members of the Rossmann fold superfamily and include glutamate, leucine, and phenylalanine DHs, methylene tetrahydrofolate DH, methylene-tetrahydromethanopterin DH, methylene-tetrahydropholate DH/cyclohydrolase, Shikimate DH-like proteins, malate oxidoreductases, and glutamyl tRNA reductase. Amino acid DHs catalyze the deamination of amino acids to keto acids with NAD(P)+ as a cofactor. The NAD(P)-binding Rossmann fold superfamily includes a wide variety of protein families including NAD(P)- binding domains of alcohol DHs, tyrosine-dependent oxidoreductases, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate DH, lactate/malate DHs, formate/glycerate DHs, siroheme synthases, 6-phosphogluconate DH, amino acid DHs, repressor rex, NAD-binding potassium channel domain, CoA-binding, and ornithine cyclodeaminase-like domains. These domains have an alpha-beta-alpha configuration. NAD binding involves numerous hydrogen and van der Waals contacts.
133453NAD_bind_2_malic_enzcd05311NAD(P) binding domain of malic enzyme (ME), subgroup 2. Malic enzyme (ME), a member of the amino acid dehydrogenase (DH)-like domain family, catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of L-malate to pyruvate in the presence of cations (typically Mg++ or Mn++) with the concomitant reduction of cofactor NAD+ or NADP+. ME has been found in all organisms, and plays important roles in diverse metabolic pathways such as photosynthesis and lipogenesis. This enzyme generally forms homotetramers. The conversion of malate to pyruvate by ME typically involves oxidation of malate to produce oxaloacetate, followed by decarboxylation of oxaloacetate to produce pyruvate and CO2. This subfamily consists primarily of archaeal and bacterial ME. Amino acid DH-like NAD(P)-binding domains are members of the Rossmann fold superfamily and include glutamate, leucine, and phenylalanine DHs, methylene tetrahydrofolate DH, methylene-tetrahydromethanopterin DH, methylene-tetrahydropholate DH/cyclohydrolase, Shikimate DH-like proteins, malate oxidoreductases, and glutamyl tRNA reductase. Amino acid DHs catalyze the deamination of amino acids to keto acids with NAD(P)+ as a cofactor. The NAD(P)-binding Rossmann fold superfamily includes a wide variety of protein families including NAD(P)- binding domains of alcohol DHs, tyrosine-dependent oxidoreductases, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate DH, lactate/malate DHs, formate/glycerate DHs, siroheme synthases, 6-phosphogluconate DH, amino acid DHs, repressor rex, NAD-binding potassium channel domain, CoA-binding, and ornithine cyclodeaminase-like domains. These domains have an alpha-beta-alpha configuration. NAD binding involves numerous hydrogen and van der Waals contacts.
133449NAD_bind_amino_acid_cd05191NAD(P) binding domain of amino acid dehydrogenase-like proteins. Amino acid dehydrogenase(DH)-like NAD(P)-binding domains are members of the Rossmann fold superfamily and are found in glutamate, leucine, and phenylalanine DHs (DHs), methylene tetrahydrofolate DH, methylene-tetrahydromethanopterin DH, methylene-tetrahydropholate DH/cyclohydrolase, Shikimate DH-like proteins, malate oxidoreductases, and glutamyl tRNA reductase. Amino acid DHs catalyze the deamination of amino acids to keto acids with NAD(P)+ as a cofactor. The NAD(P)-binding Rossmann fold superfamily includes a wide variety of protein families including NAD(P)- binding domains of alcohol DHs, tyrosine-dependent oxidoreductases, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate DH, lactate/malate DHs, formate/glycerate DHs, siroheme synthases, 6-phosphogluconate DH, amino acid DHs, repressor rex, NAD-binding potassium channel domain, CoA-binding, and ornithine cyclodeaminase-like domains. These domains have an alpha-beta-alpha configuration. NAD binding involves numerous hydrogen and van der Waals contacts.
133442NAD_bind_malic_enzcd00762NAD(P) binding domain of malic enzyme. Malic enzyme (ME), a member of the amino acid dehydrogenase (DH)-like domain family, catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of L-malate to pyruvate in the presence of cations (typically Mg++ or Mn++) with the concomitant reduction of cofactor NAD+ or NADP+. ME has been found in all organisms and plays important roles in diverse metabolic pathways such as photosynthesis and lipogenesis. This enzyme generally forms homotetramers. The conversion of malate to pyruvate by ME typically involves oxidation of malate to produce oxaloacetate, followed by decarboxylation of oxaloacetate to produce pyruvate and CO2. Amino acid DH-like NAD(P)-binding domains are members of the Rossmann fold superfamily and include glutamate, leucine, and phenylalanine DHs, methylene tetrahydrofolate DH, methylene-tetrahydromethanopterin DH, methylene-tetrahydropholate DH/cyclohydrolase, Shikimate DH-like proteins, malate oxidoreductases, and glutamyl tRNA reductase. Amino acid DHs catalyze the deamination of amino acids to keto acids with NAD(P)+ as a cofactor. The NAD(P)-binding Rossmann fold superfamily includes a wide variety of protein families including NAD(P)- binding domains of alcohol DHs, tyrosine-dependent oxidoreductases, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate DH, lactate/malate DHs, formate/glycerate DHs, siroheme synthases, 6-phosphogluconate DH, amino acid DHs, repressor rex, NAD-binding potassium channel domain, CoA-binding, and ornithine cyclodeaminase-like domains. These domains have an alpha-beta-alpha configuration. NAD binding involves numerous hydrogen and van der Waals contacts.
221560nlz1pfam12402NocA-like zinc-finger protein 1. This domain family is found in eukaryotes, and is typically between 42 and 57 amino acids in length. There is a conserved GAY sequence motif. There is a single completely conserved residue G that may be functionally important. Nlz1 self-associated via its C terminus, interacted with Nlz2, and bound to histone deacetylases.
192150NOB1_Zn_bindpfam08772Nin one binding (NOB1) Zn-ribbon like. This domain corresponds to a zinc ribbon and is found on the RNA binding protein NOB1 (Nin one binding).
191952NOGCTpfam08155NOGCT (NUC087) domain. This C terminal domain is found in the NOG subfamily of nucleolar GTP-binding proteins.
153113Nonheme_Ferritincd01055nonheme-containing ferritins. Nonheme Ferritin domain, found in archaea and bacteria, is a member of a broad superfamily of ferritin-like diiron-carboxylate proteins. The ferritin protein shell is composed of 24 protein subunits arranged in 432 symmetry. Each protein subunit, a four-helix bundle with a fifth short terminal helix, contains a dinuclear ferroxidase center (H type). Unique to this group of proteins is a third metal site in the ferroxidase center. Iron storage involves the uptake of iron (II) at the protein shell, its oxidation by molecular oxygen at the ferroxidase centers, and the movement of iron (III) into the cavity for deposition as ferrihydrite.
219731NOP5NTpfam08156NOP5NT (NUC127) domain. This N terminal domain is found in RNA-binding proteins of the NOP5 family.
149257NOPSpfam08075NOPS (NUC059) domain. This domain is found at the C-terminus of NONA and PSP1 proteins adjacent to 1 or 2 pfam00076 domains.
215688Notchpfam00066LNR domain. The LNR (Lin-12/Notch repeat) domain is found in three tandem copies in Notch related proteins. The structure of the domain has been determined by NMR and was shown to contain three disulphide bonds and coordinate a calcium ion. Three repeats are also found in the PAPP-A peptidase.
220780Nrf1_activ_bdgpfam10492Nrf1 activator activation site binding domain. In Drosophila, the erect wing (ewg) protein is required for proper development of the central nervous system and the indirect flight muscles. The fly ewg gene encodes a novel DNA-binding domain that is also found in four genes previously identified in sea urchin, chicken, zebrafish, and human. Nuclear respiratory factor-1 is a transcriptional activator that has been implicated in the nuclear control of respiratory chain expression in vertebrates. The first 26 amino acids of nuclear respiratory factor-1 are required for the binding of dynein light chain. The interaction with dynein light chain is observed for both ewg and Nrf-1, transcription factors that are structurally and functionally similar between humans and Drosophila. The highest level of expression of both ewg and Nrf-1 was found in the central nervous system, somites, first branchial arch, optic vesicle, and otic vesicle. In the mouse Nrf-1 protein, there is an activation domain at 303-469, the most conserved part of which is this domain 446-469. Ewg is a site-specific transcriptional activator, and evolutionarily conserved regions of ewg contribute both positively and negatively to transcriptional activity. The family Nrf1_DNA-bind is associated with this domain towards the N-terminal, as is the N terminal of the activation domain.
151051Nrf1_DNA-bindpfam10491NLS-binding and DNA-binding and dimerisation domains of Nrf1. In Drosophila, the erect wing (ewg) protein is required for proper development of the central nervous system and the indirect flight muscles. The fly ewg gene encodes a novel DNA-binding domain that is also found in four genes previously identified in sea urchin, chicken, zebrafish, and human. Nuclear respiratory factor-1 is a transcriptional activator that has been implicated in the nuclear control of respiratory chain expression in vertebrates. The first 26 amino acids of nuclear respiratory factor-1 are required for the binding of dynein light chain. The interaction with dynein light chain is observed for both ewg and Nrf-1, transcription factors that are structurally and functionally similar between humans and Drosophila. The highest level of expression of both ewg and Nrf-1 was found in the central nervous system, somites, first branchial arch, optic vesicle, and otic vesicle. In the mouse Nrf-1 protein, there is also an NLS domain at 88-116, and a DNA binding and dimerisation domain at 127-282. Ewg is a site-specific transcriptional activator, and evolutionarily conserved regions of ewg contribute both positively and negatively to transcriptional activity.
143522NR_DBD_RARcd06964DNA-binding domain of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers. DNA-binding domain of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers. Each zinc finger contains a group of four Cys residues which co-ordinates a single zinc atom. RAR interacts with specific DNA sites upstream of the target gene and modulates the rate of transcriptional initiation. RARs mediate the biological effect of retinoids, including both natural dietary vitamin A (retinol) metabolites and active synthetic analogs. Retinoids play key roles in a wide variety of essential biological processes, such as vertebrate embryonic morphogenesis and organogenesis, differentiation and apoptosis, and homeostasis. RAR function as a heterodimer with retinoic X receptor by binding to specific RAR response elements (RAREs), which are composed of two direct repeats of the consensus sequence 5'-AGGTCA-3' separated by one to five base pair and found in the promoter regions of retinoid target genes. Like other members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors, retinoic acid receptors have a central well conserved DNA binding domain (DBD), a variable N-terminal domain, a non-conserved hinge and a C-terminal ligand binding domain (LBD).
132729NR_LBD_HNF4_likecd06931The ligand binding domain of heptocyte nuclear factor 4, which is explosively expanded in nematodes. The ligand binding domain of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF4) like proteins: HNF4 is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. HNF4 plays a key role in establishing and maintenance of hepatocyte differentiation in the liver. It is also expressed in gut, kidney, and pancreatic beta cells. HNF4 was originally classified as an orphan receptor, but later it is found that HNF4 binds with very high affinity to a variety of fatty acids. However, unlike other nuclear receptors, the ligands do not act as a molecular switch for HNF4. They seem to constantly bind to the receptor, which is constitutively active as a transcription activator. Like other members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors, HNF4 has a central well conserved DNA binding domain (DBD), a variable N-terminal domain, a flexible hinge and a C-terminal ligand binding domain (LBD). The LBD domain is also responsible for recruiting co-activator proteins. More than 280 nuclear receptors are found in C. ele gans, most of which are originated from an explosive burst of duplications of HNF4.
132735NR_LBD_RARcd06937The ligand binding domain (LBD) of retinoic acid receptor (RAR), a members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The ligand binding domain (LBD) of retinoic acid receptor (RAR): Retinoic acid receptors are members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-regulated transcription factors. RARs mediate the biological effect of retinoids, including both naturally dietary vitamin A (retinol) metabolites and active synthetic analogs. Retinoids play key roles in a wide variety of essential biological processes, such as vertebrate embryonic morphogenesis and organogenesis, differentiation and apoptosis, and homeostasis. RARs function as heterodimers with retinoic X receptors by binding to specific RAR response elements (RAREs) found in the promoter regions of retinoid target genes. In the absence of ligand, the RAR-RXR heterodimer recruits the corepressor proteins NCoR or AMRT, and associated factors such as histone deacetylases or DNA-methyltransferases, leading to an inactive condensed chromatin structure, preventing transcription. Upon ligand binding, the corepressors are released, and coactivator complexes such as histone acetyltransferase or histone arginine methyltransferases are recruited to activate transcription. There are three RAR subtypes (alpha, beta, gamma), originating from three distinct genes. For each subtype, several isoforms exist that differ in their N-terminal region, allowing retinoids to exert their pleiotropic effects. Like other members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors, retinoic acid receptors have a central well conserved DNA binding domain (DBD), a variable N-terminal domain, a non-conserved hinge and a C-terminal ligand binding domain (LBD).
239637NTR_complement_C5cd03582NTR/C345C domain, complement C5 subfamily; The NTR domain found in complement C5 is also known as C345C because it occurs at the C-terminus of complement C3, C4 and C5. Complement C5 is activated by C5 convertase, which itself is a complex between C3b and C3 convertase. The small cleavage fragment, C5a, is the most important small peptide mediator of inflammation, and the larger active fragment, C5b, initiates late events of complement activation. The NTR/C345C domain is important in the function of C5 as it interacts with enzymes that convert C5 to the active form, C5b. The domain has also been found to bind to complement components C6 and C7, and may specifically interact with their factor I modules.
99897N_Pac_NP60cd05836The PWWP domain is an essential part of the cytokine-like nuclear factor n-pac protein, or NP60, which enhances the activity of MAP2K4 and MAP2K6 kinases to phosphorylate p38-alpha. In a variety of cell lines, NP60 has been shown to localize to the nucleus. In addition to the PWWP domain, NP60 also contains an AT-hook and a C-terminal NAD-binding domain. The PWWP domain, named for a conserved Pro-Trp-Trp-Pro motif, is a small domain consisting of 100-150 amino acids. The PWWP domain is found in numerous proteins that are involved in cell division, growth and differentiation. Most PWWP-domain proteins seem to be nuclear, often DNA-binding proteins, that function as transcription factors regulating a variety of developmental processes.
239420oculospanin_like_LELcd03167Tetraspanin, extracellular domain or large extracellular loop (LEL), oculospanin_like family. Tetraspanins are trans-membrane proteins with 4 trans-membrane segments. Both the N- and C-termini lie on the intracellular side of the membrane. This alignment model spans the extracellular domain between the 3rd and 4th trans-membrane segment. Tetraspanins are involved in diverse processes and their various functions may relate to their ability to act as molecular facilitators. Tetraspanins associate laterally with one another and cluster dynamically with numerous parnter domains in membrane microdomains, forming a network of multimolecular complexes, the "tetraspanin web". This subfamily contains sequences similar to oculospanin, which is found to be expressed in retinal pigment epithelium, iris, ciliary body, and retinal ganglion cells.
201832PAPS_reductpfam01507Phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate reductase family. This domain is found in phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate (PAPS) reductase enzymes or PAPS sulfotransferase. PAPS reductase is part of the adenine nucleotide alpha hydrolases superfamily also including N type ATP PPases and ATP sulphurylases. The enzyme uses thioredoxin as an electron donor for the reduction of PAPS to phospho-adenosine-phosphate (PAP). It is also found in NodP nodulation protein P from Rhizobium which has ATP sulfurylase activity (sulfate adenylate transferase).
238846PAPS_reductasecd01713This domain is found in phosphoadenosine phosphosulphate (PAPS) reductase enzymes or PAPS sulphotransferase. PAPS reductase is part of the adenine nucleotide alpha hydrolases superfamily also including N type ATP PPases and ATP sulphurylases. A highly modified version of the P loop, the fingerprint peptide of mononucleotide-binding proteins, is present in the active site of the protein, which appears to be a positively charged cleft containing a number of conserved arginine and lysine residues. Although PAPS reductase has no ATPase activity, it shows a striking similarity to the structure of the ATP pyrophosphatase (ATP PPase) domain of GMP synthetase, indicating that both enzyme families have evolved from a common ancestral nucleotide-binding fold. The enzyme uses thioredoxin as an electron donor for the reduction of PAPS to phospho-adenosine-phosphate (PAP) . It is also found in NodP nodulation protein P from Rhizobium meliloti which has ATP sulphurylase activity (sulphate adenylate transferase) .
239089PCBP_like_KHcd02396K homology RNA-binding domain, PCBP_like. Members of this group possess KH domains in a tandem arrangement. Most members, similar to the poly(C) binding proteins (PCBPs) and Nova, containing three KH domains, with the first and second domains, which are represented here, in tandem arrangement, followed by a large spacer region, with the third domain near the C-terminal end of the protein. The poly(C) binding proteins (PCBPs) can be divided into two groups, hnRNPs K/J and the alphaCPs, which share a triple KH domain configuration and poly(C) binding specificity. They play roles in mRNA stabilization, translational activation, and translational silencing. Nova-1 and Nova-2 are nuclear RNA-binding proteins that regulate splicing. This group also contains plant proteins that seem to have two tandem repeat arrrangements, like Hen4, a protein that plays a role in AGAMOUS (AG) pre-mRNA processing and important step in plant development. In general, KH binds single-stranded RNA or DNA. It is found in a wide variety of proteins including ribosomal proteins, transcription factors and post-transcriptional modifiers of mRNA.
211356PcpA_N_likecd08346N-terminal domain of Sphingobium chlorophenolicum 2,6-dichloro-p-hydroquinone 1,2-dioxygenase (PcpA), and similar proteins. The N-terminal domain of Sphingobium chlorophenolicum (formerly Sphingomonas chlorophenolica) 2,6-dichloro-p-hydroquinone1,2-dioxygenase (PcpA), and similar proteins. PcpA is a key enzyme in the pentachlorophenol (PCP) degradation pathway, catalyzing the conversion of 2,6-dichloro-p-hydroquinone to 2-chloromaleylacetate. This domain belongs to a conserved domain superfamily that is found in a variety of structurally related metalloproteins, including the bleomycin resistance protein, glyoxalase I, and type I ring-cleaving dioxygenases.
238080PDZcd00136PDZ domain, also called DHR (Dlg homologous region) or GLGF (after a conserved sequence motif). Many PDZ domains bind C-terminal polypeptides, though binding to internal (non-C-terminal) polypeptides and even to lipids has been demonstrated. Heterodimerization through PDZ-PDZ domain interactions adds to the domain's versatility, and PDZ domain-mediated interactions may be modulated dynamically through target phosphorylation. Some PDZ domains play a role in scaffolding supramolecular complexes. PDZ domains are found in diverse signaling proteins in bacteria, archebacteria, and eurkayotes. This CD contains two distinct structural subgroups with either a N- or C-terminal beta-strand forming the peptide-binding groove base. The circular permutation placing the strand on the N-terminus appears to be found in Eumetazoa only, while the C-terminal variant is found in all three kingdoms of life, and seems to co-occur with protease domains. PDZ domains have been named after PSD95(post synaptic density protein), DlgA (Drosophila disc large tumor suppressor), and ZO1, a mammalian tight junction protein.
201332PDZpfam00595PDZ domain (Also known as DHR or GLGF). PDZ domains are found in diverse signaling proteins.
238488PDZ_CTP_proteasecd00988PDZ domain of C-terminal processing-, tail-specific-, and tricorn proteases, which function in posttranslational protein processing, maturation, and disassembly or degradation, in Bacteria, Archaea, and plant chloroplasts. May be responsible for substrate recognition and/or binding, as most PDZ domains bind C-terminal polypeptides, and binding to internal (non-C-terminal) polypeptides and even to lipids has been demonstrated. In this subfamily of protease-associated PDZ domains a C-terminal beta-strand forms the peptide-binding groove base, a circular permutation with respect to PDZ domains found in Eumetazoan signaling proteins.
238490PDZ_glycyl_aminopeptcd00990PDZ domain associated with archaeal and bacterial M61 glycyl-aminopeptidases. May be responsible for substrate recognition and/or binding, as most PDZ domains bind C-terminal polypeptides, and binding to internal (non-C-terminal) polypeptides and even to lipids has been demonstrated. In this subfamily of protease-associated PDZ domains a C-terminal beta-strand is presumed to form the peptide-binding groove base, a circular permutation with respect to PDZ domains found in Eumetazoan signaling proteins.
238489PDZ_metalloproteasecd00989PDZ domain of bacterial and plant zinc metalloprotases, presumably membrane-associated or integral membrane proteases, which may be involved in signalling and regulatory mechanisms. May be responsible for substrate recognition and/or binding, as most PDZ domains bind C-terminal polypeptides, and binding to internal (non-C-terminal) polypeptides and even to lipids has been demonstrated. In this subfamily of protease-associated PDZ domains a C-terminal beta-strand forms the peptide-binding groove base, a circular permutation with respect to PDZ domains found in Eumetazoan signaling proteins.
238487PDZ_serine_proteasecd00987PDZ domain of tryspin-like serine proteases, such as DegP/HtrA, which are oligomeric proteins involved in heat-shock response, chaperone function, and apoptosis. May be responsible for substrate recognition and/or binding, as most PDZ domains bind C-terminal polypeptides, though binding to internal (non-C-terminal) polypeptides and even to lipids has been demonstrated. In this subfamily of protease-associated PDZ domains a C-terminal beta-strand forms the peptide-binding groove base, a circular permutation with respect to PDZ domains found in Eumetazoan signaling proteins.
238492PDZ_signalingcd00992PDZ domain found in a variety of Eumetazoan signaling molecules, often in tandem arrangements. May be responsible for specific protein-protein interactions, as most PDZ domains bind C-terminal polypeptides, and binding to internal (non-C-terminal) polypeptides and even to lipids has been demonstrated. In this subfamily of PDZ domains an N-terminal beta-strand forms the peptide-binding groove base, a circular permutation with respect to PDZ domains found in proteases.
173804Peptidases_S8_CspA-lcd07478Peptidase S8 family domain in CspA-like proteins. GSP (germination-specific protease) converts the spore peptidoglycan hydrolase (SleC) precursor to an active enzyme during germination of Clostridium perfringens S40 spores. Analysis of an enzyme fraction of GSP showed that it was composed of a gene cluster containing the processed forms of products of cspA, cspB, and cspC which are positioned in a tandem array just upstream of the 5' end of sleC. The amino acid sequences deduced from the nucleotide sequences of the csp genes showed significant similarity and showed a high degree of homology with those of the catalytic domain and the oxyanion binding region of subtilisin-like serine proteases. Members of the peptidases S8 and S35 clan include endopeptidases, exopeptidases and also a tripeptidyl-peptidase. The S8 family has an Asp/His/Ser catalytic triad similar to that found in trypsin-like proteases, but do not share their three-dimensional structure and are not homologous to trypsin. The S53 family contains a catalytic triad Glu/Asp/Ser. The stability of these enzymes may be enhanced by calcium, some members have been shown to bind up to 4 ions via binding sites with different affinity. Some members of this clan contain disulfide bonds. These enzymes can be intra- and extracellular, some function at extreme temperatures and pH values.
173790Peptidases_S8_PCSK9_cd04077Peptidase S8 family domain in ProteinaseK-like proteins. The peptidase S8 or Subtilase clan of proteases have a Asp/His/Ser catalytic triad that is not homologous to trypsin. This CD contains several members of this clan including: PCSK9 (Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9), Proteinase_K, Proteinase_T, and other subtilisin-like serine proteases. PCSK9 posttranslationally regulates hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) by binding to LDLRs on the cell surface, leading to their degradation. The binding site of PCSK9 has been localized to the epidermal growth factor-like repeat A (EGF-A) domain of the LDLR. Characterized Proteinases K are secreted endopeptidases with a high degree of sequence conservation. Proteinases K are not substrate-specific and function in a wide variety of species in different pathways. It can hydrolyze keratin and other proteins with subtilisin-like specificity. The number of calcium-binding motifs found in these differ. Proteinase T is a novel proteinase from the fungus Tritirachium album Limber. The amino acid sequence of proteinase T as deduced from the nucleotide sequence is about 56% identical to that of proteinase K.
173803Peptidases_S8_Subtilcd07477Peptidase S8 family domain in Subtilisin proteins. This group is composed of many different subtilisins: Pro-TK-subtilisin, subtilisin Carlsberg, serine protease Pb92 subtilisin, and BPN subtilisins just to name a few. Pro-TK-subtilisin is a serine protease from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis and consists of a signal peptide, a propeptide, and a mature domain. TK-subtilisin is matured from pro-TK-subtilisin upon autoprocessing and degradation of the propeptide. Unlike other subtilisins though, the folding of the unprocessed form of pro-TK-subtilisin is induced by Ca2+ binding which is almost completed prior to autoprocessing. Ca2+ is required for activity unlike the bacterial subtilisins. The propeptide is not required for folding of the mature domain unlike the bacterial subtilases because of the stability produced from Ca2+ binding. Subtilisin Carlsberg is extremely similar in structure to subtilisin BPN'/Novo thought it has a 30% difference in amino acid sequence. The substrate binding regions are also similar and 2 possible Ca2+ binding sites have been identified recently. Subtilisin Carlsberg possesses the highest commercial importance as a proteolytic additive for detergents. Serine protease Pb92, the serine protease from the alkalophilic Bacillus strain PB92, also contains two calcium ions and the overall folding of the polypeptide chain closely resembles that of the subtilisins. Members of the peptidases S8 and S35 clan include endopeptidases, exopeptidases and also a tripeptidyl-peptidase. The S8 family has an Asp/His/Ser catalytic triad similar to that found in trypsin-like proteases, but do not share their three-dimensional structure and are not homologous to trypsin. The S53 family contains a catalytic triad Glu/Asp/Ser. The stability of these enzymes may be enhanced by calcium, some members have been shown to bind up to 4 ions via binding sites with different affinity. Some members of this clan contain disulfide bonds. These enzymes can be intra- and extracellular, some function at extreme temperatures and pH values.
173810Peptidases_S8_Thermicd07484Peptidase S8 family domain in Thermitase-like proteins. Thermitase is a non-specific, trypsin-related serine protease with a very high specific activity. It contains a subtilisin like domain. The tertiary structure of thermitase is similar to that of subtilisin BPN'. It contains a Asp/His/Ser catalytic triad. Members of the peptidases S8 (subtilisin and kexin) and S53 (sedolisin) clan include endopeptidases and exopeptidases. The S8 family has an Asp/His/Ser catalytic triad similar to that found in trypsin-like proteases, but do not share their three-dimensional structure and are not homologous to trypsin. Serine acts as a nucleophile, aspartate as an electrophile, and histidine as a base. The S53 family contains a catalytic triad Glu/Asp/Ser with an additional acidic residue Asp in the oxyanion hole, similar to that of subtilisin. The serine residue here is the nucleophilic equivalent of the serine residue in the S8 family, while glutamic acid has the same role here as the histidine base. However, the aspartic acid residue that acts as an electrophile is quite different. In S53 the it follows glutamic acid, while in S8 it precedes histidine. The stability of these enzymes may be enhanced by calcium, some members have been shown to bind up to 4 ions via binding sites with different affinity. There is a great diversity in the characteristics of their members: some contain disulfide bonds, some are intracellular while others are extracellular, some function at extreme temperatures, and others at high or low pH values.
238271Pep_deformylasecd00487Polypeptide or peptide deformylase; a family of metalloenzymes that catalyzes the removal of the N-terminal formyl group in a growing polypeptide chain following translation initiation during protein synthesis in prokaryotes. These enzymes utilize Fe(II) as the catalytic metal ion, which can be replaced with a nickel or cobalt ion with no loss of activity. There are two types of peptide deformylases, types I and II, which differ in structure only in the outer surface of the domain. Because these enzymes are essential only in prokaryotes (although eukaryotic gene sequences have been found), they are a target for a new class of antibacterial agents.
221427Period_Cpfam12114Period protein 2/3C-terminal region. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is typically between 164 to 200 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam08447.
100096PGM_like4cd05803This PGM-like (phosphoglucomutase-like) domain is located C-terminal to a mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase domain in a protein of unknown function that is found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This domain belongs to the alpha-D-phosphohexomutase superfamily which includes several related enzymes that catalyze a reversible intramolecular phosphoryl transfer on their sugar substrates. Members of this superfamily include the phosphoglucomutases (PGM1 and PGM2), phosphoglucosamine mutase (PNGM), phosphoacetylglucosamine mutase (PAGM), the bacterial phosphomannomutase ManB, the bacterial phosphoglucosamine mutase GlmM, and the bifunctional phosphomannomutase/phosphoglucomutase (PMM/PGM). Each of these enzymes has four domains with a centrally located active site formed by four loops, one from each domain. All four domains are included in this alignment model.
241231PHcd00821Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
214574PHsmart00233Pleckstrin homology domain. Domain commonly found in eukaryotic signalling proteins. The domain family possesses multiple functions including the abilities to bind inositol phosphates, and various proteins. PH domains have been found to possess inserted domains (such as in PLC gamma, syntrophins) and to be inserted within other domains. Mutations in Brutons tyrosine kinase (Btk) within its PH domain cause X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA) in patients. Point mutations cluster into the positively charged end of the molecule around the predicted binding site for phosphatidylinositol lipids.
241255PH1_FARP1-likecd01220FERM, RhoGEF and pleckstrin domain-containing protein 1 and related proteins Pleckstrin Homology (PH) domain, repeat 1. Members here include FARP1 (also called Chondrocyte-derived ezrin-like protein; PH domain-containing family C member 2), FARP2 (also called FIR/FERM domain including RhoGEF; FGD1-related Cdc42-GEF/FRG), and FARP6 (also called Zinc finger FYVE domain-containing protein 24). They are members of the Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) which are upstream positive regulators of Rho GTPases. Little is known about FARP1 and FARP6, though FARP1 has increased expression in differentiated chondrocytes. FARP2 is thought to regulate neurite remodeling by mediating the signaling pathways from membrane proteins to Rac. It is found in brain, lung, and testis, as well as embryonic hippocampal and cortical neurons. FARP1 and FARP2 are composed of a N-terminal FERM domain, a proline-rich (PR) domain, Dbl-homology (DH), and two C-terminal PH domains. FARP6 is composed of Dbl-homology (DH), and two C-terminal PH domains separated by a FYVE domain. This hierarchy contains the first PH repeat. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241254PH1_FGD1cd01219FYVE, RhoGEF and PH domain containing/faciogenital dysplasia protein 1 pleckstrin homology (PH), N-terminal domain. In general, FGDs have a RhoGEF (DH) domain, followed by an N-terminal PH domain, a FYVE domain and a C-terminal PH domain. All FGDs are guanine nucleotide exchange factors that activates the Rho GTPase Cdc42, an important regulator of membrane trafficking. The RhoGEF domain is responsible for GEF catalytic activity, while the N-terminal PH domain is involved in intracellular targeting of the DH domain. Mutations in the FGD1 gene are responsible for the X-linked disorder known as faciogenital dysplasia (FGDY). Both FGD1 and FGD3 are targeted by the ubiquitin ligase SCF(FWD1/beta-TrCP) upon phosphorylation of two serine residues in its DSGIDS motif and subsequently degraded by the proteasome. However, FGD1 and FGD3 induced significantly different morphological changes in HeLa Tet-Off cells and while FGD1 induced long finger-like protrusions, FGD3 induced broad sheet-like protrusions when the level of GTP-bound Cdc42 was significantly increased by the inducible expression of FGD3. They also reciprocally regulated cell motility in inducibly expressed in HeLa Tet-Off cells, FGD1 stimulated cell migration while FGD3 inhibited it. FGD1 and FGD3 therefore play different roles to regulate cellular functions, even though their intracellular levels are tightly controlled by the same destruction pathway through SCF(FWD1/beta-TrCP). PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241264PH1_Tiam1_2cd01230T-lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 and 2 Pleckstrin Homology (PH) domain, N-terminal domain. Tiam1 activates Rac GTPases to induce membrane ruffling and cell motility while Tiam2 (also called STEF (SIF (still life) and Tiam1 like-exchange factor) contributes to neurite growth. Tiam1/2 are Dbl-family of GEFs that possess a Dbl(DH) domain with a PH domain in tandem. DH-PH domain catalyzes the GDP/GTP exchange reaction in the GTPase cycle and facillitating the switch between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound states. Tiam1/2 possess two PH domains, which are often referred to as PHn and PHc domains. The DH-PH tandem domain is made up of the PHc domain while the PHn is part of a novel N-terminal PHCCEx domain which is made up of the PHn domain, a coiled coil region(CC), and an extra region (Ex). PHCCEx mediates binding to plasma membranes and signalling proteins in the activation of Rac GTPases. The PH domain resembles the beta-spectrin PH domain, suggesting non-canonical phosphatidylinositol binding. CC and Ex form a positively charged surface for protein binding. There are 2 motifs in Tiam1/2-interacting proteins that bind to the PHCCEx domain: Motif-I in CD44, ephrinBs, and the NMDA receptor and Motif-II in Par3 and JIP2.Neither of these fall in the PHn domain. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241282PH2_ADAPcd01251ArfGAP with dual PH domains Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, repeat 2. ADAP (also called centaurin alpha) is a phophatidlyinositide binding protein consisting of an N-terminal ArfGAP domain and two PH domains. In response to growth factor activation, PI3K phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. Centaurin alpha 1 is recruited to the plasma membrane following growth factor stimulation by specific binding of its PH domain to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. Centaurin alpha 2 is constitutively bound to the plasma membrane since it binds phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate with equal affinity. This cd contains the second PH domain repeat. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241286PH2_Tiam1_2cd01255T-lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 and 2 Pleckstrin Homology (PH) domain, C-terminal domain. Tiam1 activates Rac GTPases to induce membrane ruffling and cell motility while Tiam2 (also called STEF (SIF (still life) and Tiam1 like-exchange factor) contributes to neurite growth. Tiam1/2 are Dbl-family of GEFs that possess a Dbl(DH) domain with a PH domain in tandem. DH-PH domain catalyzes the GDP/GTP exchange reaction in the GTPase cycle and facillitating the switch between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound states. The DH domain of Tiam1 interacts with Switch regions 1 and 2 of Rac1 which blocks magnesium binding and GDP is released. Tiam1/2 possess two PH domains, which are often referred to as PHn and PHc domains. The DH-PH tandem domain is made up of the PHc domain while the PHn is part of a novel N-terminal PHCCEx domain which is made up of the PHn domain, a coiled coil region(CC), and an extra region (Ex). PHCCEx mediates binding to plasma membranes and signalling proteins in the activation of Rac GTPases. The PH domain resembles the beta-spectrin PH domain, suggesting non-canonical phosphatidylinositol binding. CC and Ex form a positively charged surface for protein binding. There are 2 motifs in Tiam1/2-interacting proteins that bind to the PHCCEx domain: Motif-I in CD44, ephrinBs, and the NMDA receptor and Motif-II in Par3 and JIP2. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
153075phosphagen_kinasescd00330Phosphagen (guanidino) kinases. Phosphagen (guanidino) kinases are enzymes that transphosphorylate a high energy phosphoguanidino compound, like phosphocreatine (PCr) in the case of creatine kinase (CK) or phosphoarginine in the case of arginine kinase, which is used as an energy-storage and -transport metabolite, to ADP, thereby creating ATP. The substrate binding site is located in the cleft between the N and C-terminal domains, but most of the catalytic residues are found in the larger C-terminal domain. In higher eukaryotes, CK exists in tissue-specific (muscle, brain), as well as compartment-specific (mitochondrial and cytosolic) isoforms. They are either coupled to glycolysis (cytosolic form) or oxidative phosphorylation (mitochondrial form). Besides CK and AK, the most studied members of this family are also other phosphagen kinases with different substrate specificities, like glycocyamine kinase (GK), lombricine kinase (LK), taurocyamine kinase (TK) and hypotaurocyamine kinase (HTK). The majority of bacterial phosphagen kinases appear to lack the N-terminal domain and have not been functionally characterized.
241289PHsplit_syntrophincd01258Syntrophin Split Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Syntrophins are scaffold proteins that associate with associate with the Duchenne muscular dystrophy protein dystrophin and the dystrophin-related proteins, utrophin and dystrobrevin to form the dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC). There are 5 members: alpha, beta1, beta2, gamma1, and gamma2) all of which contains a split (also called joined) PH domain and a PDZ domain (PHN-PDZ-PHC). The split PH domain of alpha-syntrophin adopts a canonical PH domain fold and together with PDZ forms a supramodule functioning synergistically in binding to inositol phospholipids. The alpha-syntrophin PH-PDZ supramodule showed strong binding to phosphoinositides PI(3,5)P2 and PI(5)P, modest binding to PI(3,4)P2 and PI(4,5)P2, and weak binding to PI(3)P, PI(4)P, and PI(3,4,5)P. There are a large number of signaling proteins that bind to the PDZ domain of syntrophins: nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), aquaporin-4, voltage-gated sodium channels, potassium channels, serine/threonine protein kinases, and the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241281PH_AGAPcd01250Arf-GAP with GTPase, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. AGAP (also called centaurin gamma; PIKE/Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase enhancer) reside mainly in the nucleus and are known to activate phosphoinositide 3-kinase, a key regulator of cell proliferation, motility and vesicular trafficking. There are 3 isoforms of AGAP (PIKE-A, PIKE-L, and PIKE-S) the longest of which PIKE-L consists of N-terminal proline rich domains (PRDs), followed by a GTPase domain, a split PH domain (PHN and PHC), an ArfGAP domain and two ankyrin repeats. PIKE-S terminates after the PHN domain and PIKE-A is missing the PRD region. Centaurin binds phosphatidlyinositol (3,4,5)P3. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241294PH_anillincd01263Anillin Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Anillin (Rhotekin/RTKN; also called PLEKHK/Pleckstrin homology domain-containing family K) is an actin binding protein involved in cytokinesis. It interacts with GTP-bound Rho proteins and results in the inhibition of their GTPase activity. Dysregulation of the Rho signal transduction pathway has been implicated in many forms of cancer. Anillin proteins have a N-terminal HRI domain/ACC (anti-parallel coiled-coil) finger domain or Rho-binding domain binds small GTPases from the Rho family. The C-terminal PH domain helps target anillin to ectopic septin containing foci. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241290PH_APBB1IPcd01259Amyloid beta (A4) Precursor protein-Binding, family B, member 1 Interacting Protein pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. APBB1IP consists of a Ras-associated (RA) domain, a PH domain, a family-specific BPS region, and a C-terminal SH2 domain. Grb7, Grb10 and Grb14 are paralogs that are also present in this hierarchy. These adapter proteins bind a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases, including the insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) receptors. Grb10 and Grb14 are important tissue-specific negative regulators of insulin and IGF1 signaling based and may contribute to type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes in humans. RA-PH function as a single structural unit and is dimerized via a helical extension of the PH domain. The PH domain here are proposed to bind phosphoinositides non-cannonically ahd are unlikely to bind an activated GTPase. The tandem RA-PH domains are present in a second adapter-protein family, MRL proteins, Caenorhabditis elegans protein MIG-1012, the mammalian proteins RIAM and lamellipodin and the Drosophila melanogaster protein Pico12, all of which are Ena/VASP-binding proteins involved in actin-cytoskeleton rearrangement. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241284PH_ARHGAP21-likecd01253ARHGAP21 and related proteins pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. ARHGAP family genes encode Rho/Rac/Cdc42-like GTPase activating proteins with a RhoGAP domain. These proteins functions as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for RHOA and CDC42. ARHGAP21 controls the Arp2/3 complex and F-actin dynamics at the Golgi complex by regulating the activity of the small GTPase Cdc42. It is recruited to the Golgi by to GTPase, ARF1, through its PH domain and its helical motif. It is also required for CTNNA1 recruitment to adherens junctions. ARHGAP21 and it related proteins all contains a PH domain and a RhoGAP domain. Some of the members have additional N-terminal domains including PDZ, SH3, and SPEC. The ARHGAP21 PH domain interacts with the GTPbound forms of both ARF1 and ARF6 ARF-binding domain/ArfBD. The members here include: ARHGAP15, ARHGAP21, and ARHGAP23. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241262PH_BCR-relatedcd01228Breakpoint Cluster Region-related pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. The BCR gene is one of the two genes in the BCR-ABL complex, which is associated with the Philadelphia chromosome, a product of a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 22 and 9. BCR is a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for RAC1 (primarily) and CDC42. The Dbl region of BCR has the most RhoGEF activity for Cdc42, and less activity towards Rac and Rho. Since BCR possesses both GAP and GEF activities, it may function to temporally regulate the activity of these GTPases. It also displays serine/threonine kinase activity. The BCR protein contains multiple domains including an N-terminal kinase domain, a RhoGEF domain, a PH domain, a C1 domain, a C2 domain, and a C-terminal RhoGAP domain. ABR, a related smaller protein, is structurally similar to BCR, but lacks the N-terminal kinase domain and has GAP activity for both Rac and Cdc42. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241237PH_BEACHcd01201Pleckstrin homology domain in BEACH domain containing proteins. The BEACH domain is present in several eukaroyotic proteins CHS, neurobeachin (Nbea), LRBA (also called BGL, beige-like, or CDC4L), FAN, KIAA1607, and LvsA-LvsF. CHS is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder that can cause severe immunodeficiency and albinism in mammals and beige is the name for the CHS disease in mice. The CHS disease is associated with the presence of giant, perinuclear vesicles (lysosomes, melanosomes, and others) and CHS protein is thought to play an important role in the fusion, fission, or trafficking of these vesicles. All BEACH proteins contain the following domains: PH, BEACH, and WD40. The WD40 domain is involved in mediating protein-protein interactions involved in targeting proteins to subcellular compartments. The combined PH-BEACH motifs may present a single continuous structural unit involved in protein binding. Some members have an additional N-terminal Laminin G-like (LamG) domains Ca++ mediated receptors or an additional C-terminal FYVE zinc-binding domain which targets proteins to membrane lipids via interaction with phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate, PI3P. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241271PH_Btkcd01238Bruton's tyrosine kinase pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Btk is a member of the Tec family of cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases that includes BMX, IL2-inducible T-cell kinase (Itk) and Tec. Btk plays a role in the maturation of B cells. Tec proteins general have an N-terminal PH domain, followed by a Tek homology (TH) domain, a SH3 domain, a SH2 domain and a kinase domain. The Btk PH domain binds phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and responds to signalling via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. The PH domain is also involved in membrane anchoring which is confirmed by the discovery of a mutation of a critical arginine residue in the BTK PH domain. This results in severe human immunodeficiency known as X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) in humans and a related disorder is mice.PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241267PH_CADPScd01234Ca2+-dependent activator protein (also called CAPS) Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. CADPS/CAPS consists of two members, CAPS1 which regulates catecholamine release from neuroendocrine cells and CAPS2 which is involved in the release of two neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) from cerebellar granule cells. CADPS plays an important role in vesicle exocytosis in neurons and endocrine cells where it functions to prime the exocytic machinery for Ca2+-triggered fusion. Priming involves the assembly of trans SNARE complexes. The initial interaction of vesicles with target membranes is mediated by diverse stage-specific tethering factors or multi-subunit tethering complexes. CADPS and Munc13 proteins are proposed to be the functional homologs of the stage-specific tethering factors that prime membrane fusion. Interestingly, regions in the C-terminal half of CADPS are similar to the C-terminal region of Munc13-1 that was reported to bind syntaxin-1. CADPS has independent interactions with each of the SNARE proteins (Q-SNARE and R-SNARE) required for vesicle fusion. CADPS interacts with Q-SNARE proteins syntaxin-1 (H3 SNARE) and SNAP-25 (SN1) and might promote Q-SNARE heterodimer formation. Through its N-terminal R-SNARE VAMP-2 interactions, CADPS bound to heterodimeric Q-SNARE complexes could be involved in catalyzing the zippering of VAMP-2 into recipient complexes. It also contains a central PH domain that binds to phosphoinositide 4,5 bisphosphate containing liposomes. Membrane association may also be mediated by binding to phosphatidlyserine via general electrostatic interactions. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules a
241291PH_CNK_mammalian-likcd01260Connector enhancer of KSR (Kinase suppressor of ras) (CNK) pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. CNK family members function as protein scaffolds, regulating the activity and the subcellular localization of RAS activated RAF. There is a single CNK protein present in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans in contrast to mammals which have 3 CNK proteins (CNK1, CNK2, and CNK3). All of the CNK members contain a sterile a motif (SAM), a conserved region in CNK (CRIC) domain, and a PSD-95/DLG-1/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain, and, with the exception of CNK3, a PH domain. A CNK2 splice variant CNK2A also has a PDZ domain-binding motif at its C terminus and Drosophila CNK (D-CNK) also has a domain known as the Raf-interacting region (RIR) that mediates binding of the Drosophila Raf kinase. This cd contains CNKs from mammals, chickens, amphibians, fish, and crustacea. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241258PH_Collybistin_ASEFcd01224Collybistin/APC-stimulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Collybistin (also called PEM2) is homologous to the Dbl proteins ASEF (also called ARHGEF4/RhoGEF4) and SPATA13 (Spermatogenesis-associated protein 13; also called ASEF2). It activates CDC42 specifically and not any other Rho-family GTPases. Collybistin consists of an SH3 domain, followed by a RhoGEF/DH and PH domain. In Dbl proteins, the DH and PH domains catalyze the exchange of GDP for GTP in Rho GTPases, allowing them to signal to downstream effectors. It induces submembrane clustering of the receptor-associated peripheral membrane protein gephyrin, which is thought to form a scaffold underneath the postsynaptic membrane linking receptors to the cytoskeleton. It also acts as a tumor suppressor that links adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein, a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway and promotes the phosphorylation and degradation of beta-catenin, to Cdc42. Autoinhibition of collybistin is accomplished by the binding of its SH3 domain with both the RhoGEF and PH domains to block access of Cdc42 to the GTPase-binding site. Inactivation promotes cancer progression. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241259PH_Cool_Pixcd01225Cloned out of library/PAK-interactive exchange factor pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. There are two forms of Pix proteins: alpha Pix (also called Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 6/90Cool-2) and beta Pix (GEF7/p85Cool-1). betaPix contains an N-terminal SH3 domain, a RhoGEF/DH domain, a PH domain, a GIT1 binding domain (GBD), and a C-terminal coiled-coil (CC) domain. alphaPix differs in that it contains a calponin homology (CH) domain, which interacts with beta-parvin, N-terminal to the SH3 domain. alphaPix is an exchange factor for Rac1 and Cdc42 and mediates Pak activation on cell adhesion to fibronectin. Mutations in alphaPix can cause X-linked mental retardation. alphaPix also interacts with Huntington's disease protein (htt), and enhances the aggregation of mutant htt (muthtt) by facilitating SDS-soluble muthtt-muthtt interactions. The DH-PH domain of a Pix was required for its binding to htt. In the majority of Rho GEF proteins, the DH-PH domain is responsible for the exchange activity. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241261PH_Dbscd01227DBL's big sister protein pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Dbs (also called MCF2-transforming sequence-like protein 2) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), which contains spectrin repeats, a rhoGEF (DH) domain and a PH domain. The Dbs PH domain participates in binding to both the Cdc42 and RhoA GTPases. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241287PH_dynamincd01256Dynamin pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Dynamin is a GTPase that regulates endocytic vesicle formation. It has an N-terminal GTPase domain, followed by a PH domain, a GTPase effector domain and a C-terminal proline arginine rich domain. Dynamin-like proteins, which are found in metazoa, plants and yeast have the same domain architecture as dynamin, but lack the PH domain. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241263PH_Ect2cd01229Epithelial cell transforming 2 (Ect2) pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Ect2, a mammalian ortholog of Drosophila pebble, plays a role in neuronal differentiation and brain development. Pebble and Ect2 have been identified as Rho-family guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEF) that mediate activation of Rho during cytokinesis, but are proposed to play slightly different roles. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241256PH_ephexincd01221Ephexin Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Ephexin-1 (also called NGEF/ neuronal guanine nucleotide exchange factor) plays a role in the homeostatic modulation of presynaptic neurotransmitter release. Specific functions are still unknown for Ephexin-2 (also called RhoGEF19) and Ephexin-3 (also called Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 5/RhoGEF5, Transforming immortalized mammary oncogene/p60 TIM, and NGEF/neuronalGEF). Ephexin-4 (also called RhoGEF16) acts downstream of EphA2 to promote ligand-independent breast cancer cell migration and invasion toward epidermal growth factor through activation of RhoG. This in turn results in the activation of RhoG which recruits ELMO2 and Dock4 to form a complex with EphA2 at the tips of cortactin-rich protrusions in migrating breast cancer cells. Ephexin-5 is the specific GEF for RhoA activation and the regulation of vascular smooth muscle contractility. It interacts with EPHA4 PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. The members of the Ephexin family contains a RhoGEF (DH) followed by a PH domain and an SH3 domain. The ephexin PH domain is believed to act with the DH domain in mediating protein-protein interactions. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241278PH_FAPP1_FAPP2cd01247Four phosphate adaptor protein 1 and 2 Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Human FAPP1 (also called PLEKHA3/Pleckstrin homology domain-containing, family A member 3) regulates secretory transport from the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. It is recruited through binding of PH domain to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns(4)P) and a small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1). These two binding sites have little overlap the FAPP1 PH domain to associate with both ligands simultaneously and independently. FAPP1 has a N-terminal PH domain followed by a short proline-rich region. FAPP1 is a member of the oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) family which includes OSBP, OSBP-related proteins (ORP), and Goodpasture antigen binding protein (GPBP). They have a wide range of purported functions including sterol transport, cell cycle control, pollen development and vessicle transport from Golgi recognize both PI lipids and ARF proteins. FAPP2 (also called PLEKHA8/Pleckstrin homology domain-containing, family A member 8), a member of the Glycolipid lipid transfer protein(GLTP) family has an N-terminal PH domain that targets the TGN and C-terminal GLTP domain. FAPP2 functions to traffic glucosylceramide (GlcCer) which is made in the Golgi. It's interaction with vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein (VAP) could be a means of regulation. Some FAPP2s share the FFAT-like motifs found in GLTP. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241270PH_fermitincd01237Fermitin family pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Fermitin functions as a mediator of integrin inside-out signalling. The recruitment of Fermitin proteins and Talin to the membrane mediates the terminal event of integrin signalling, via interaction with integrin beta subunits. Fermatin has FERM domain interrupted with a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Fermitin family homologs (Fermt1, 2, and 3, also known as Kindlins) are each encoded by a different gene. In mammalian studies, Fermt1 is generally expressed in epithelial cells, Fermt2 is expressed inmuscle tissues, and Fermt3 is expressed in hematopoietic lineages. Specifically Fermt2 is expressed in smooth and striated muscle tissues in mice and in the somites (a trunk muscle precursor) and neural crest in Xenopus embryos. As such it has been proposed that Fermt2 plays a role in cardiomyocyte and neural crest differentiation. Expression of mammalian Fermt3 is associated with hematopoietic lineages: the anterior ventral blood islands, vitelline veins, and early myeloid cells. In Xenopus embryos this expression, also include the notochord and cement gland. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241297PH_Gab1_Gab2cd01266Grb2-associated binding proteins 1 and 2 pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. The Gab subfamily includes several Gab proteins, Drosophila DOS and C. elegans SOC-1. They are scaffolding adaptor proteins, which possess N-terminal PH domains and a C-terminus with proline-rich regions and multiple phosphorylation sites. Following activation of growth factor receptors, Gab proteins are tyrosine phosphorylated and activate PI3K, which generates 3-phosphoinositide lipids. By binding to these lipids via the PH domain, Gab proteins remain in proximity to the receptor, leading to further signaling. While not all Gab proteins depend on the PH domain for recruitment, it is required for Gab activity. The members in this cd include the Gab1 and Gab2 proteins. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241277PH_GAP1-likecd01244RAS p21 protein activator (GTPase activating protein) family pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. RASAL1, GAP1(m), GAP1(IP4BP), and CAPRI are all members of the GAP1 family of GTPase-activating proteins. They contain N-terminal SH2-SH3-SH2 domains, followed by two C2 domains, a PH domain, a RasGAP domain, and a BTK domain. With the notable exception of GAP1(m), they all possess an arginine finger-dependent GAP activity on the Ras-related protein Rap1. They act as a suppressor of RAS enhancing the weak intrinsic GTPase activity of RAS proteins resulting in the inactive GDP-bound form of RAS, allowing control of cellular proliferation and differentiation. PH domains share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241273PH_GRK2_subgroupcd01240G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 subgroup pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. GRKs are a family of serine-threonine kinases which phosphorylates activated G-protein coupled receptors leading to the release of the previously bound heterotrimeric G protein agonist and thus signal termination. There are seven mammalian GRKs (GRK1-7) grouped into three subfamilies: GRK1 (GRK1 and 7), GRK2 (GRK2 and 3), and GRK4 (GRK4-6). GRKs have three functional components: an N-terminal Regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) which interacts with the seven-trans-membrane helical receptor protein and/or other membrane targets, a central catalytic protein kinase C (PKc) domain, and a C-terminal section containing a autophosphorylation region and a variable region that mediates membrane association. In both GRK2 (also known as beta-adrenergic receptor kinase-1) and GRK3 (beta-adrenergic receptor kinase-2), the C-terminal variable region contains a PH domain which gives binding specificity to Gbetagamma proteins. The GRK2 PH domain has an extended C-terminal helix, which mediates interactions with G beta gamma subunits. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241283PH_GRP1-likecd01252General Receptor for Phosphoinositides-1-like Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. GRP1/cytohesin3 and the related proteins ARNO (ARF nucleotide-binding site opener)/cytohesin-2 and cytohesin-1 are ARF exchange factors that contain a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain thought to target these proteins to cell membranes through binding polyphosphoinositides. The PH domains of all three proteins exhibit relatively high affinity for PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Within the Grp1 family, diglycine (2G) and triglycine (3G) splice variants, differing only in the number of glycine residues in the PH domain, strongly influence the affinity and specificity for phosphoinositides. The 2G variants selectively bind PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 with high affinity,the 3G variants bind PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 with about 30-fold lower affinity and require the polybasic region for plasma membrane targeting. These ARF-GEFs share a common, tripartite structure consisting of an N-terminal coiled-coil domain, a central domain with homology to the yeast protein Sec7, a PH domain, and a C-terminal polybasic region. The Sec7 domain is autoinhibited by conserved elements proximal to the PH domain. GRP1 binds to the DNA binding domain of certain nuclear receptors (TRalpha, TRbeta, AR, ER, but not RXR), and can repress thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-mediated transactivation by decreasing TR-complex formation on thyroid hormone response elements. ARNO promotes sequential activation of Arf6, Cdc42 and Rac1 and insulin secretion. Cytohesin acts as a PI 3-kinase effector mediating biological responses including cell spreading and adhesion, chemotaxis, protein trafficking, and cytoskeletal rearrangements, only some of which appear to depend on their ability to activate ARFs. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins
241288PH_IRScd01257Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) molecules are mediators in insulin signaling and play a role in maintaining basic cellular functions such as growth and metabolism. They act as docking proteins between the insulin receptor and a complex network of intracellular signaling molecules containing Src homology 2 (SH2) domains. Four members (IRS-1, IRS-2, IRS-3, IRS-4) of this family have been identified that differ as to tissue distribution, subcellular localization, developmental expression, binding to the insulin receptor, and interaction with SH2 domain-containing proteins. IRS molecules have an N-terminal PH domain, followed by an IRS-like PTB domain which has a PH-like fold. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.cytoskeletal associated molecules, and in lipid associated enzymes.
241266PH_KIFIA_KIFIBcd01233KIFIA and KIFIB protein pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. The kinesin-3 family motors KIFIA (Caenorhabditis elegans homolog unc-104) and KIFIB transport synaptic vesicle precursors that contain synaptic vesicle proteins, such as synaptophysin, synaptotagmin and the small GTPase RAB3A, but they do not transport organelles that contain plasma membrane proteins. They have a N-terminal motor domain, followed by a coiled-coil domain, and a C-terminal PH domain. KIF1A adopts a monomeric form in vitro, but acts as a processive dimer in vivo. KIF1B has alternatively spliced isoforms distinguished by the presence or absence of insertion sequences in the conserved amino-terminal region of the protein; this results in their different motor activities. KIF1A and KIF1B bind to RAB3 proteins through the adaptor protein mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) -activating death domain (MADD; also calledDENN), which was first identified as a RAB3 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241295PH_MELT_VEPH1cd01264Melted pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. The melted protein (also called Ventricular zone expressed PH domain-containing protein homolog 1) is expressed in the developing central nervous system of vertebrates. It contains a single C-terminal PH domain that is required for membrane targeting. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241276PH_MRCKcd01243MRCK (myotonic dystrophy-related Cdc42-binding kinase) pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. MRCK is thought to be coincidence detector of signaling by Cdc42 and phosphoinositides. It has been shown to promote cytoskeletal reorganization, which affects many biological processes. There are 2 members of this family: MRCKalpha and MRCKbeta. MRCK consists of a serine/threonine kinase domain, a cysteine rich (C1) region, a PH domain and a p21 binding motif. The MRCK PH domain is responsible for its targeting to cell to cell junctions. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241293PH_PDK1cd012623-Phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. PDK1 plays an important role in insulin and growth factor signalling cascades. It phosphorylates and activates many AGC (cAMP-dependent, cGMP-dependent, protein kinase C (PKC)) family of protein kinases members, including protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt), p70 ribosomal S6-kinase (S6K), serum and glucocorticoid responsive kinase (SGK), p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), and PKC. PDK1 contains an N-terminal serine/threonine kinase domain followed by a PH domain. Following binding of the PH domain to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and PtdIns(3,4)P2, PDK1 activates these enzymes by phosphorylating a Ser/Thr residue in their activation loop. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241253PH_Phafin2-likecd01218Phafin2 (also called EAPF, FLJ13187, ZFYVE18 or PLEKHF2) Pleckstrin Homology (PH) domain. Phafin2 is differentially expressed in the liver cancer cell and regulates the structure and function of the endosomes through Rab5-dependent processes. Phafin2 modulates the cell's response to extracellular stimulation by modulating the receptor density on the cell surface. Phafin2 contains a PH domain and a FYVE domain. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241274PH_PKBcd01241Protein Kinase B-like pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. PKB (also called Akt), a member of the AGC kinase family, is a phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)-dependent Ser/Thr kinase which alters the activity of the targeted protein. The name AGC is based on the three proteins that it is most similar to cAMP-dependent protein kinase 1 (PKA; also known as PKAC), cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG; also known as CGK1) and protein kinase C (PKC). Human Akt has three isoforms derived for distinct genes: Akt1/PKBalpha, Akt2/PKBbeta, and Akt3/PKBgamma. All Akts have an N-terminal PH domain with an activating Thr phosphorylation site, a kinase domain, and a short C-terminal regulatory tail with an activating Ser phosphorylation site. The PH domain recruits Akt to the plasma membrane by binding to phosphoinositides (PtdIns-3,4-P2) and is required for activation. The phosphorylation of Akt at its Thr and Ser phosphorylation sites leads to increased Akt activity toward forkhead transcription factors, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and the Bcl-xL/Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD), all of which possess a consensus motif R-X-R-XX-ST-B (X = amino acid, B = bulky hydrophobic residue) for Akt phosphorylation. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241272PH_PKDcd01239Protein kinase D (PKD/PKCmu) pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Protein Kinase C family is composed of three members, PKD1 (PKCmu), PKD2 and PKD3 (PKCnu). Like the C-type protein kinases (PKCs), PKDs are activated by diacylglycerol (DAG). They are involved in vesicular transport, cell proliferation, survival, migration and immune responses. PKD consists of tandem C1 domains, followed by a PH domain and a kinase domain. While the PKD PH domain has not been shown to bind phosphorylated inositol lipids and is not required for membrane translocation, it is required for nuclear export. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241279PH_PLC_ELMO1cd01248Phospholipase C and Engulfment and cell motility protein 1 pleckstrin homology domain. The C-terminal region of ELMO1, the PH domain and Pro-rich sequences, binds the SH3-containing region of DOCK2 forming a intermolecular five-helix bundle allowing for DOCK mediated Rac1 activation. ELMO1, a mammalian homolog of C. elegans CED-12, contains an N-terminal RhoG-binding region, a ELMO domain, a PH domain, and a C-terminal sequence with three PxxP motifs. Specificaly, PLCs catalyze the cleavage of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and result in the release of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3). These products trigger the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. There are fourteen kinds of mammalian phospholipase C which are are classified into six isotypes (beta, gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, eta). All PLCs, except for PLCzeta, have a PH domain which is for most part N-terminally located, though lipid binding specificity is not conserved between them. In addition PLC gamma contains a split PH domain within its catalytic domain that is separated by 2 SH2 domains and a single SH3 domain. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241285PH_PLDcd01254Phospholipase D pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. PLD hydrolyzes phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidic acid (PtdOH), which can bind target proteins. PLD contains a PH domain, a PX domain and four conserved PLD signature domains. The PLD PH domain is specific for bisphosphorylated inositides. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241260PH_RalBD_exo84cd01226Exocyst complex 84-kDa subunit Ral-binding domain/Pleckstrin Homology (PH) domain. The Sec6/8 complex, also called the exocyst complex, forms an octameric protein (Sec3, Sec5, Sec6, Sec8, Sec10, Sec15, Exo70 and Exo84) involved in the tethering of secretory vesicles to specific regions on the plasma membrane. The regulation of Sec6/8 complex differs between mammals and yeast. Mamalian Exo84 and Sec5 are effector targets for active Ral GTPases which are not present in yeast. Ral GTPases are members of the Ras superfamily, and as such cycle between an active GTP-bound state and an inactive GDP-bound state. The Exo84 Ral-binding domain adopts a PH domain fold. Mammalian Exo84 and Sec5 competitively bind to active RalA. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241269PH_RIPcd01236Rho-Interacting Protein Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. RIP1-RhoGDI2 was obtained in a screen for proteins that bind to wild-type RhoA. RIP2, RIP3, and RIP4 were isolated from cDNA libraries with constitutively active V14RhoA (containing the C190R mutation). RIP2 represents a novel GDP/GTP exchange factor (RhoGEF), while RIP3 (p116Rip) and RIP4 are thought to be structural proteins. RhoGEF contains a Dbl(DH)/PH region, a a zinc finger motif, a leucine-rich domain, and a coiled-coil region. The last 2 domains are thought to be involved in mediating protein-protein interactions. RIP3 is a negative regulator of RhoA signaling that inhibits, either directly or indirectly, RhoA-stimulated actomyosin contractility. In plants RIP3 is localized at microtubules and interacts with the kinesin-13 family member AtKinesin-13A, suggesting a role for RIP3 in microtubule reorganization and a possible function in Rho proteins of plants (ROP)-regulated polar growth. It has a PH domain, two proline-rich regions which are putative binding sites for SH3 domains, and a COOH-terminal coiled-coil region which overlaps with the RhoA-binding region. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241275PH_ROCKcd01242Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. ROCK is a serine/threonine kinase that binds GTP-Rho. It consists of a kinase domain, a coiled coil region and a PH domain. The ROCK PH domain is interrupted by a C1 domain. ROCK plays a role in cellular functions, such as contraction, adhesion, migration, and proliferation and in the regulation of apoptosis. There are two ROCK isoforms, ROCK1 and ROCK2. In ROCK2 the Rho Binding Domain (RBD) and the PH domain work together in membrane localization with RBD receiving the RhoA signal and the PH domain receiving the phospholipid signal. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241268PH_Sbf1_hMTMR5cd01235Set binding factor 1 (also called Human MTMR5) Pleckstrin Homology (PH) domain. Sbf1 is a myotubularin-related pseudo-phosphatase. Both Sbf1 and myotubularin interact with the SET domains of Hrx and other epigenetic regulatory proteins, but Sbf1 lacks phosphatase activity due to several amino acid changes in its structurally preserved catalytic pocket. It contains pleckstrin (PH), GEF, and myotubularin homology domains that are thought to be responsible for signaling and growth control. Sbf1 functions as an inhibitor of cellular growth. The N-terminal GEF homology domain serves to inhibit the transforming effects of Sbf1. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241292PH_SOScd01261Son of Sevenless (SOS) Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. SOS is a Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factor. SOS is thought to transmit signals from activated receptor tyrosine kinases to the Ras signaling pathway. SOS contains a histone domain, Dbl-homology (DH), a PH domain, Rem domain, Cdc25 domain, and a Grb2 binding domain. The SOS PH domain binds to phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and phosphatidic acid (PA). SOS is dependent on Ras binding to the allosteric site via its histone domain for both a lower level of activity (Ras GDP) and maximal activity (Ras GTP). The DH domain blocks the allosteric Ras binding site in SOS. The PH domain is closely associated with the DH domain and the action of the DH-PH unit gates a reciprocal interaction between Ras and SOS. The C-terminal proline-rich domain of SOS binds to the adapter protein Grb2 which localizes the Sos protein to the plasma membrane and diminishes the negative effect of the C-terminal domain on the guanine nucleotide exchange activity of the CDC25-homology domain of SOS. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241296PH_TBC1D2Acd01265TBC1 domain family member 2A pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. TBC1D2A (also called PARIS-1/Prostate antigen recognized and identified by SEREX 1 and ARMUS) contains a PH domain and a TBC-type GTPase catalytic domain. TBC1D2A integrates signaling between Arf6, Rac1, and Rab7 during junction disassembly. Activated Rac1 recruits TBC1D2A to locally inactivate Rab7 via its C-terminal TBC/RabGAP domain and facilitate E-cadherin degradation in lysosomes. The TBC1D2A PH domain mediates localization at cell-cell contacts and coprecipitates with cadherin complexes. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.
241257PH_Vavcd01223Vav pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Vav acts as a guanosine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rho/Rac proteins. They control processes including T cell activation, phagocytosis, and migration of cells. The Vav subgroup of Dbl GEFs consists of three family members (Vav1, Vav2, and Vav3) in mammals. Vav1 is preferentially expressed in the hematopoietic system, while Vav2 and Vav3 are described by broader expression patterns. Mammalian Vav proteins consist of a calponin homology (CH) domain, an acidic region, a catalytic Dbl homology (DH) domain, a PH domain, a zinc finger cysteine rich domain (C1/CRD), and an SH2 domain, flanked by two SH3 domains. In invertebrates such as Drosophila and C. elegans, Vav is missing the N-terminal SH3 domain. The DH domain is involved in RhoGTPase recognition and selectivity and stimulates the reorganization of the switch regions for GDP/GTP exchange. The PH domain is implicated in directing membrane localization, allosteric regulation of guanine nucleotide exchange activity, and as a phospholipid- dependent regulator of GEF activity. Vavs bind RhoGTPases including Rac1, RhoA, RhoG, and Cdc42, while other members of the GEF family are specific for a single RhoGTPase. This promiscuity is thought to be a result of its CRD. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.polarized. PH domains also have diverse functions. They are often involved in targeting proteins to the plasma membrane, but only a few (less than 10%) display strong specificity in binding inositol phosphates. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across a
176500PI-PLCc_bacteria_likcd08557Catalytic domain of bacterial phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C and similar proteins. This subfamily corresponds to the catalytic domain present in bacterial phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC, EC 4.6.1.13) and their sequence homologs found in eukaryota. Bacterial PI-PLCs participate in Ca2+-independent PI metabolism, hydrolyzing the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol (PI) to produce phosphorylated myo-inositol and diacylglycerol (DAG). Although their precise physiological function remains unclear, bacterial PI-PLCs may function as virulence factors in some pathogenic bacteria. Bacterial PI-PLCs contain a single TIM-barrel type catalytic domain. Its catalytic mechanism is based on general base and acid catalysis utilizing two well conserved histidines, and consists of two steps, a phosphotransfer and a phosphodiesterase reaction. Eukaryotic homologs in this family are named as phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C X domain containing proteins (PI-PLCXD). They are distinct from the typical eukaryotic phosphoinositide-specific phospholipases C (PI-PLC, EC 3.1.4.11), which have a multidomain organization that consists of a PLC catalytic core domain, and various regulatory domains. The catalytic core domain is assembled from two highly conserved X- and Y-regions split by a divergent linker sequence. In contrast, eukaryotic PI-PLCXDs contain a single TIM-barrel type catalytic domain, X domain, which is closely related to that of bacterial PI-PLCs. Although the biological function of eukaryotic PI-PLCXDs still remains unclear, it may be distinct from that of typical eukaryotic PI-PLCs. This family also includes a distinctly different type of eukaryotic PLC, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (GPI-PLC), an integral membrane protein characterized in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. T. brucei GPI-PLC hydrolyzes the GPI-anchor on the variant specific glycoprotein (VSG), releasing dimyristyl glycerol (DMG), which may facilitate the evasion of the protozoan to the host's immune system. It does not require Ca2+ for its activity and is more closely related to bacterial PI-PLCs, but not mammalian PI-PLCs.
176528PI-PLCc_BcPLC_likecd08586Catalytic domain of Bacillus cereus phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipases C and similar proteins. This subfamily corresponds to the catalytic domain present in Bacillus cereus phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC, EC 4.6.1.13) and its sequence homologs found in bacteria and eukaryota. Bacterial PI-PLCs participate in Ca2+-independent PI metabolism, hydrolyzing the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol (PI) to produce phosphorylated myo-inositol and diacylglycerol (DAG). Although their precise physiological function remains unclear, bacterial PI-PLCs may function as virulence factors in some pathogenic bacteria. Bacterial PI-PLCs contain a single TIM-barrel type catalytic domain. Their catalytic mechanism is based on general base and acid catalysis utilizing two well conserved histidines, and consists of two steps, a phosphotransfer and a phosphodiesterase reaction. This family also includes some uncharacterized eukaryotic homologs, which contains a single TIM-barrel type catalytic domain, X domain. They are similar to bacterial PI-PLCs, and distinct from typical eukaryotic PI-PLCs, which have a multidomain organization that consists of a PLC catalytic core domain, and various regulatory domains, and strictly require Ca2+ for their catalytic activities. The prototype of this family is Bacillus cereus PI-PLC, which has a moderate thermal stability and is active as a monomer.
176498PI-PLCc_GDPD_SFcd08555Catalytic domain of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-like phosphodiesterases superfamily. The PI-PLC-like phosphodiesterases superfamily represents the catalytic domains of bacterial phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC, EC 4.6.1.13), eukaryotic phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC, EC 3.1.4.11), glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases (GP-GDE, EC 3.1.4.46), sphingomyelinases D (SMases D) (sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase D, EC 3.1.4.41) from spider venom, SMases D-like proteins, and phospholipase D (PLD) from several pathogenic bacteria, as well as their uncharacterized homologs found in organisms ranging from bacteria and archaea to metazoans, plants, and fungi. PI-PLCs are ubiquitous enzymes hydrolyzing the membrane lipid phosphoinositides to yield two important second messengers, inositol phosphates and diacylglycerol (DAG). GP-GDEs play essential roles in glycerol metabolism and catalyze the hydrolysis of glycerophosphodiesters to sn-glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) and the corresponding alcohols that are major sources of carbon and phosphate. Both, PI-PLCs and GP-GDEs, can hydrolyze the 3'-5' phosphodiester bonds in different substrates, and utilize a similar mechanism of general base and acid catalysis with conserved histidine residues, which consists of two steps, a phosphotransfer and a phosphodiesterase reaction. This superfamily also includes Neurospora crassa ankyrin repeat protein NUC-2 and its Saccharomyces cerevisiae counterpart, Phosphate system positive regulatory protein PHO81, glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GP-GDE)-like protein SHV3 and SHV3-like proteins (SVLs). The residues essential for enzyme activities and metal binding are not conserved in these sequence homologs, which might suggest that the function of catalytic domains in these proteins might be distinct from those in typical PLC-like phosphodiesterases.
176541PI-PLCc_plantcd08599Catalytic domain of plant phosphatidylinositide-specific phospholipases C. This family corresponds to the catalytic domain present in a group of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipases C (PI-PLC, EC 3.1.4.11) encoded by PLC genes from higher plants, which are homologs of mammalian PI-PLC in terms of overall sequence similarity and domain organization. Mammalian PI-PLC is a signaling enzyme that hydrolyzes the membrane phospholipids phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to generate two important second messengers in eukaryotic signal transduction cascades, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). InsP3 triggers inflow of calcium from intracellular stores, while DAG, together with calcium, activates protein kinase C, which then phosphorylates other molecules, leading to altered cellular activity. Calcium is required for the catalysis. The domain arrangement of plant PI-PLCs is structurally similar to the mammalian PLC-zeta isoform, which lacks the N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, but contains EF-hand like motifs (which are absent in a few plant PLCs), a PLC catalytic core domain with X- and Y- highly conserved regions split by a linker sequence, and a C2 domain. However, at the sequence level, the plant PI-PLCs are closely related to the mammalian PLC-delta isoform. Experiments show that plant PLCs display calcium dependent PLC catalytic properties, although they lack some of the N-terminal motifs found in their mammalian counterparts. A putative calcium binding site may be located at the region spanning the X- and Y- domains.
176555PI-PLCXD1ccd08616Catalytic domain of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, X domain containing 1. This subfamily corresponds to the catalytic domain present in a group of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C X domain containing 1 (PI-PLCXD1), 2 (PI-PLCXD2) and 3 (PI-PLCXD3), which are bacterial phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC, EC 4.6.1.13) sequence homologs found in vertebrates. The typical eukaryotic phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC, EC 3.1.4.11) has a multidomain organization that consists of a PLC catalytic core domain, and various regulatory domains. The catalytic core domain is assembled from two highly conserved X- and Y-regions split by a divergent linker sequence. In contrast, members in this group contain a single TIM-barrel type catalytic domain, X domain, and are more closely related to bacterial PI-PLCs, which participate in Ca2+-independent PI metabolism, hydrolyzing the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol (PI) to produce phosphorylated myo-inositol and diacylglycerol (DAG). Although the biological function of eukaryotic PI-PLCXDs still remains unclear, it may distinct from that of typical eukaryotic PI-PLCs.
176529PI-PLCXDc_likecd08587Catalytic domain of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C X domain containing and similar proteins. This family corresponds to the catalytic domain present in phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C X domain containing proteins (PI-PLCXD) which are bacterial phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC, EC 4.6.1.13) sequence homologs mainly found in eukaryota. The typical eukaryotic phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC, EC 3.1.4.11) have a multidomain organization that consists of a PLC catalytic core domain, and various regulatory domains. The catalytic core domain is assembled from two highly conserved X- and Y-regions split by a divergent linker sequence. In contrast, eukaryotic PI-PLCXDs and their bacterial homologs contain a single TIM-barrel type catalytic domain, X domain, which is more closely related to that of bacterial PI-PLCs. Although the biological function of eukaryotic PI-PLCXDs still remains unclear, it may be distinct from that of typical eukaryotic PI-PLCs.
176557PI-PLCXDc_like_1cd08620Catalytic domain of uncharacterized hypothetical proteins similar to eukaryotic phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, X domain containing proteins. This subfamily corresponds to the catalytic domain present in a group of uncharacterized hypothetical proteins found in bacteria and fungi, which are similar to eukaryotic phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, X domain containing proteins (PI-PLCXD). The typical eukaryotic phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC, EC 3.1.4.11) has a multidomain organization that consists of a PLC catalytic core domain, and various regulatory domains. The catalytic core domain is assembled from two highly conserved X- and Y-regions split by a divergent linker sequence. In contrast, eukaryotic PI-PLCXDs contain a single TIM-barrel type catalytic domain, X domain, and are more closely related to bacterial PI-PLCs, which participate in Ca2+-independent PI metabolism, hydrolyzing the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol (PI) to produce phosphorylated myo-inositol and diacylglycerol (DAG). Although the biological function of eukaryotic PI-PLCXDs still remains unclear, it may distinct from that of typical eukaryotic PI-PLCs.
176558PI-PLCXDc_like_2cd08621Catalytic domain of uncharacterized hypothetical proteins similar to eukaryotic phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, X domain containing proteins. This subfamily corresponds to the catalytic domain present in a group of uncharacterized hypothetical proteins found in bacteria and fungi, which are similar to eukaryotic phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, X domain containing proteins (PI-PLCXD). The typical eukaryotic phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC, EC 3.1.4.11) has a multidomain organization that consists of a PLC catalytic core domain, and various regulatory domains. The catalytic core domain is assembled from two highly conserved X- and Y-regions split by a divergent linker sequence. In contrast, eukaryotic PI-PLCXDs contain a single TIM-barrel type catalytic domain, X domain, and are more closely related to bacterial PI-PLCs, which participate in Ca2+-independent PI metabolism, hydrolyzing the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol (PI) to produce phosphorylated myo-inositol and diacylglycerol (DAG). Although the biological function of eukaryotic PI-PLCXDs still remains unclear, it may distinct from that of typical eukaryotic PI-PLCs.
214538PI3Kcsmart00146Phosphoinositide 3-kinase, catalytic domain. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase isoforms participate in a variety of processes, including cell motility, the Ras pathway, vesicle trafficking and secretion, and apoptosis. These homologues may be either lipid kinases and/or protein kinases: the former phosphorylate the 3-position in the inositol ring of inositol phospholipids. The ataxia telangiectesia-mutated gene produced, the targets of rapamycin (TOR) and the DNA-dependent kinase have not been found to possess lipid kinase activity. Some of this family possess PI-4 kinase activities.
119427PI4Kc_III_alphacd05167Phosphoinositide 4-kinase (PI4K), Type III, alpha isoform, catalytic domain; The PI4K catalytic domain family is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other kinases such as the typical serine/threonine/tyrosine protein kinases (PKs), aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, choline kinase, and RIO kinases. PI4Ks catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to the 4-hydroxyl of the inositol ring of D-myo-phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) to generate PtdIns(4)P, the major precursor in the synthesis of other phosphoinositides including PtdIns(4,5)P2, PtdIns(3,4)P2, and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Two isoforms of type III PI4K, alpha and beta, exist in most eukaryotes. PI4KIIIalpha is a 220 kDa protein found in the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The role of PI4KIIIalpha in the ER remains unclear. In the plasma membrane, it provides PtdIns(4)P, which is then converted by PI5Ks to PtdIns(4,5)P2, an important signaling molecule. Vertebrate PI4KIIIalpha is also part of a signaling complex associated with P2X7 ion channels. The yeast homolog, Stt4p, is also important in regulating the conversion of phosphatidylserine to phosphatidylethanolamine at the ER and Golgi interface. Mammalian PI4KIIIalpha is highly expressed in the nervous system.
149929Preseq_ALASpfam090295-aminolevulinate synthase presequence. The N terminal presequence domain found in 5-aminolevulinate synthase exists as an amphipathic helix, with a positively charged surface provided by lysine residues and no stable helix at the N-terminus. The domain is essential for the import process by which ALAS is transported into the mitochondria: translocase of the outer membrane (Tom) and translocase of the inner membrane protein complexes appear responsible for recognition and import through the mitochondrial membrane. The protein Tom20 is anchored to the mitochondrial outer membrane, and its interaction with presequences is thought to be the recognition step which allows subsequent import.
215885Prionpfam00377Prion/Doppel alpha-helical domain. The prion protein is thought to be the infectious agent that causes transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, such as scrapie and BSE. It is thought that the prion protein can exist in two different forms: one is the normal cellular protein, and the other is the infectious form which can change the normal prion protein into the infectious form. It has been found that the prion alpha-helical domain is also found in the Doppel protein.
215759Pro_isomerasepfam00160Cyclophilin type peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase/CLD. The peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases, also known as cyclophilins, share this domain of about 109 amino acids. Cyclophilins have been found in all organisms studied so far and catalyze peptidyl-prolyl isomerisation during which the peptide bond preceding proline (the peptidyl-prolyl bond) is stabilised in the cis conformation. Mammalian cyclophilin A (CypA) is a major cellular target for the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A (CsA). Other roles for cyclophilins may include chaperone and cell signalling function.
241304PTB_Ankscd01274Ankyrin repeat and sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain-containing (Anks) protein family Phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain. Both AIDA-1b (AbetaPP intracellular domain-associated protein 1b) and Odin (also known as ankyrin repeat and sterile alpha motif domain-containing 1A; ANKS1A) belong to the Anks protein family. Both of these family members interacts with the EphA8 receptor. Ank members consists of ankyrin repeats, a SAM domain and a C-terminal PTB domain which is crucial for interaction with the juxtamembrane (JM) region of EphA8. PTB domains are classified into three groups, namely, phosphotyrosine-dependent Shc-like, phosphotyrosine-dependent IRS-like, and phosphotyrosine-independent Dab-like PTB domains of which the Anks PTB is a member. PTB domains have a common PH-like fold and are found in various eukaryotic signaling molecules. This domain was initially shown to binds peptides with a NPXY motif with differing requirements for phosphorylation of the tyrosine, although more recent studies have found that some types of PTB domains can bind to peptides lack tyrosine residues altogether. In contrast to SH2 domains, which recognize phosphotyrosine and adjacent carboxy-terminal residues, PTB-domain binding specificity is conferred by residues amino-terminal to the phosphotyrosine. PTB domains are classified into three groups: phosphotyrosine-dependent Shc-like, phosphotyrosine-dependent IRS-like, and phosphotyrosine-independent Dab-like PTB domains. This cd is part of the Dab-like subgroup.
241300PTB_CAPON-likecd01270Carboxyl-terminal PDZ ligand of neuronal nitric oxide synthase protein (CAPON) Phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain. CAPON (also known as Nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein, NOS1AP, encodes a cytosolic protein that binds to the signaling molecule, neuronal NOS (nNOS). It contains a N-terminal PTB domain that binds to the small monomeric G protein, Dexras1 and a C-terminal PDZ-binding domain that mediates interactions with nNOS. Included in this cd are C. elegan proteins dystrobrevin, DYB-1, which controls neurotransmitter release and muscle Ca(2+) transients by localizing BK channels and DYstrophin-like phenotype and CAPON related,DYC-1, which is functionally related to dystrophin homolog, DYS-1. Mutations in the dystrophin gene causes Duchenne muscular dystrophy. DYS-1 shares sequence similarity, including key motifs, with their mammalian counterparts. These CAPON-like proteins all have a single PTB domain. PTB domains have a common PH-like fold and are found in various eukaryotic signaling molecules. This domain was initially shown to binds peptides with a NPXY motif with differing requirements for phosphorylation of the tyrosine, although more recent studies have found that some types of PTB domains can bind to peptides lack tyrosine residues altogether. In contrast to SH2 domains, which recognize phosphotyrosine and adjacent carboxy-terminal residues, PTB-domain binding specificity is conferred by residues amino-terminal to the phosphotyrosine. PTB domains are classified into three groups: phosphotyrosine-dependent Shc-like, phosphotyrosine-dependent IRS-like, and phosphotyrosine-independent Dab-like PTB domains. This cd is part of the Dab-like subgroup.
241303PTB_CED-6cd01273Cell death protein 6 homolog (CED-6/GULP1) Phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain. CED6 (also known as GULP1: engulfment adaptor PTB domain containing 1) is an adaptor protein involved in the specific recognition and engulfment of apoptotic cells. CED6 has been shown to interact with the cytoplasmic tail of another protein involved in the engulfment of apoptotic cells, CED1. CED6 has a C-terminal PTB domain, which can bind to NPXY motifs. PTB domains have a common PH-like fold and are found in various eukaryotic signaling molecules. This domain was initially shown to binds peptides with a NPXY motif with differing requirements for phosphorylation of the tyrosine, although more recent studies have found that some types of PTB domains can bind to peptides lack tyrosine residues altogether. In contrast to SH2 domains, which recognize phosphotyrosine and adjacent carboxy-terminal residues, PTB-domain binding specificity is conferred by residues amino-terminal to the phosphotyrosine. PTB domains are classified into three groups: phosphotyrosine-dependent Shc-like, phosphotyrosine-dependent IRS-like, and phosphotyrosine-independent Dab-like PTB domains. This cd is part of the Dab-like subgroup.
241251PTB_Dabcd01215Disabled (Dab) Phosphotyrosine-binding domain. Dab is a cystosolic adaptor protein, which binds to the cytoplasmic tails of lipoprotein receptors, such as ApoER2 and VLDLR, via its PTB domain. The dab PTB domain has a preference for unphosphorylated tyrosine within an NPxY motif. Additionally, the Dab PTB domain, which is structurally similar to PH domains, binds to phosphatidlyinositol phosphate 4,5 bisphosphate in a manner characteristic of phosphoinositide binding PH domains. PTB domains have a common PH-like fold and are found in various eukaryotic signaling molecules. This domain was initially shown to binds peptides with a NPXY motif with differing requirements for phosphorylation of the tyrosine, although more recent studies have found that some types of PTB domains can bind to peptides lack tyrosine residues altogether. In contrast to SH2 domains, which recognize phosphotyrosine and adjacent carboxy-terminal residues, PTB-domain binding specificity is conferred by residues amino-terminal to the phosphotyrosine. PTB domains are classified into three groups: phosphotyrosine-dependent Shc-like, phosphotyrosine-dependent IRS-like, and phosphotyrosine-independent Dab-like PTB domains. This cd is part of the Dab-like subgroup.
241239PTB_DOK1_DOK2_DOK3cd01203Downstream of tyrosine kinase 1, 2, and 3 proteins phosphotyrosine-binding domain (PTBi). The Dok family adapters are phosphorylated by different protein tyrosine kinases. Dok proteins are involved in processes such as modulation of cell differentiation and proliferation, as well as in control of the cell spreading and migration The Dok protein contains an N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain followed by a central phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain, which has a PH-like fold, and a proline- and tyrosine-rich C-terminal tail. The PH domain is binds to acidic phospholids and localizes proteins to the plasma membrane, while the PTB domain mediates protein-protein interactions by binding to phosphotyrosine-containing motifs. The C-terminal part of Dok contains multiple tyrosine phosphorylation sites that serve as potential docking sites for Src homology 2-containing proteins such as ras GTPase-activating protein and Nck, leading to inhibition of ras signaling pathway activation and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and c-Jun activation, respectively. There are 7 mammalian Dok members: Dok-1 to Dok-7. Dok-1 and Dok-2 act as negative regulators of the Ras-Erk pathway downstream of many immunoreceptor-mediated signaling systems, and it is believed that recruitment of p120 rasGAP by Dok-1 and Dok-2 is critical to their negative regulation. Dok-3 is a negative regulator of the activation of JNK and mobilization of Ca2+ in B-cell receptor-mediated signaling, interacting with SHIP-1 and Grb2. Dok-4- 6 play roles in protein tyrosine kinase(PTK)-mediated signaling in neural cells and Dok-7 is the key cytoplasmic activator of MuSK (Muscle-Specific Protein Tyrosine Kinase). PTB domains have a common PH-like fold and are found in various eukaryotic signaling molecules. This domain was initially shown to binds peptides with a NPXY motif with differing requirements for phosphorylation of the tyrosine, although more recent studies have found that some types of PTB domains can bind to peptides lack tyrosine residues altogether. In contrast to SH2 domains, which recognize phosphotyrosine and adjacent carboxy-terminal residues, PTB-domain binding specificity is conferred by residues amino-terminal to the phosphotyrosine. PTB domains are classified into three groups: phosphotyrosine-dependent Shc-like, phosphotyrosine-dependent IRS-like, and phosphotyrosine-independent Dab-like PTB domains. This cd is part of the IRS-like subgroup.
241250PTB_FAM43Acd01214Family with sequence similarity 43, member A (FAM43A) Phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain. The function of FAM43A is currently unknown. Human FAM43A is located on chromosome 3 at location 3q29. It encodes a 3182 base pair mRNA which possesses one Pleckstrin homology-like domain. The mRNA translates into LOC131583, a hydrophilic protein that is predicted to localize in the nucleus. The FAM43A gene is conserved through a broad range of vertebrates. It is highly conserved from chimpanzees to zebrafish. PTB domains have a common PH-like fold and are found in various eukaryotic signaling molecules. This domain was initially shown to binds peptides with a NPXY motif with differing requirements for phosphorylation of the tyrosine, although more recent studies have found that some types of PTB domains can bind to peptides lack tyrosine residues altogether. In contrast to SH2 domains, which recognize phosphotyrosine and adjacent carboxy-terminal residues, PTB-domain binding specificity is conferred by residues amino-terminal to the phosphotyrosine. PTB domains are classified into three groups: phosphotyrosine-dependent Shc-like, phosphotyrosine-dependent IRS-like, and phosphotyrosine-independent Dab-like PTB domains.
241238PTB_FRS2cd01202Fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2 phosphotyrosine-binding domain. FRS2 (also called Suc1-associated neurotrophic factor (SNT)-induced tyrosine-phosphorylated target) proteins are membrane-anchored adaptor proteins. They are composed of an N-terminal myristoylation site followed by a phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain, which has a PH-like fold, and a C-terminal effector domain containing multiple tyrosine and serine/threonine phosphorylation site. The FRS2/SNT proteins show increased tyrosine phosphorylation by activated receptors, such as fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and TrkA, recruit SH2 domain containing proteins such as Grb2, and mediate signals from activated receptors to a variety of downstream pathways. The PTB domains of the SNT proteins directly interact with the canonical NPXpY motif of TrkA in a phosphorylationdependent manner, they directly bind to the juxtamembrane region of FGFR in a phosphorylation-independent manner. PTB domains have a common PH-like fold and are found in various eukaryotic signaling molecules. This domain was initially shown to binds peptides with a NPXY motif with differing requirements for phosphorylation of the tyrosine, although more recent studies have found that some types of PTB domains can bind to peptides lack tyrosine residues altogether. In contrast to SH2 domains, which recognize phosphotyrosine and adjacent carboxy-terminal residues, PTB-domain binding specificity is conferred by residues amino-terminal to the phosphotyrosine. PTB domains are classified into three groups: phosphotyrosine-dependent Shc-like, phosphotyrosine-dependent IRS-like, and phosphotyrosine-independent Dab-like PTB domains. This cd is part of the IRS-like subgroup.
241298PTB_Numbcd01268Numb Phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain. Numb is a membrane associated adaptor protein which plays critical roles in cell fate determination. Numb proteins are involved in control of asymmetric cell division and cell fate choice, endocytosis, cell adhesion, cell migration, ubiquitination of specific substrates and a number of signaling pathways (Notch, Hedgehog, p53). Mutations in Numb plays a critical role in disease (cancer). Numb has an N-terminal PTB domain and a C-terminal NumbF domain. PTB domains have a common PH-like fold and are found in various eukaryotic signaling molecules. This domain was initially shown to binds peptides with a NPXY motif with differing requirements for phosphorylation of the tyrosine, although more recent studies have found that some types of PTB domains can bind to peptides lack tyrosine residues altogether. In contrast to SH2 domains, which recognize phosphotyrosine and adjacent carboxy-terminal residues, PTB-domain binding specificity is conferred by residues amino-terminal to the phosphotyrosine. PTB domains are classified into three groups: phosphotyrosine-dependent Shc-like, phosphotyrosine-dependent IRS-like, and phosphotyrosine-independent Dab-like PTB domains. This cd is part of the Dab-like subgroup.
241244PTB_X11cd01208X11-like Phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain. The function of the neuronal protein X11 is unknown to date. X11 has a PTB domain followed by two PDZ domains. PTB domains have a common PH-like fold and are found in various eukaryotic signaling molecules. This domain was initially shown to binds peptides with a NPXY motif with differing requirements for phosphorylation of the tyrosine, although more recent studies have found that some types of PTB domains can bind to peptides lack tyrosine residues altogether. In contrast to SH2 domains, which recognize phosphotyrosine and adjacent carboxy-terminal residues, PTB-domain binding specificity is conferred by residues amino-terminal to the phosphotyrosine. PTB domains are classified into three groups: phosphotyrosine-dependent Shc-like, phosphotyrosine-dependent IRS-like, and phosphotyrosine-independent Dab-like PTB domains. This cd is part of the Dab-like subgroup.
173633PTKc_Ablcd05052Catalytic domain of the Protein Tyrosine Kinase, Abelson kinase. Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK) family; Abelson (Abl) kinase; catalytic (c) domain. The PTKc family is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other kinases such as protein serine/threonine kinases, RIO kinases, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to tyrosine (tyr) residues in protein substrates. Abl (or c-Abl) is a ubiquitously-expressed cytoplasmic (or nonreceptor) tyr kinase that contains SH3, SH2, and tyr kinase domains in its N-terminal region, as well as nuclear localization motifs, a putative DNA-binding domain, and F- and G-actin binding domains in its C-terminal tail. It also contains a short autoinhibitory cap region in its N-terminus. Abl is normally inactive and requires phosphorylation and myristoylation for activation. Abl function depends on its subcellular localization. In the cytoplasm, Abl plays a role in cell proliferation and survival. In response to DNA damage or oxidative stress, Abl is transported to the nucleus where it induces apoptosis. In chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients, an aberrant translocation results in the replacement of the first exon of Abl with the BCR (breakpoint cluster region) gene. The resulting BCR-Abl fusion protein is constitutively active and associates into tetramers, resulting in a hyperactive kinase sending a continuous signal. This leads to uncontrolled proliferation, morphological transformation and anti-apoptotic effects. BCR-Abl is the target of selective inhibitors, such as imatinib (Gleevec), used in the treatment of CML. Abl2, also known as ARG (Abelson-related gene), is thought to play a cooperative role with Abl in the proper development of the nervous system. The Tel-ARG fusion protein, resulting from reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 1 and 12, is associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The TEL gene is a frequent fusion partner of other tyr kinase oncogenes, including Tel/Abl, Tel/PDGFRbeta, and Tel/Jak2, found in patients with leukemia and myeloproliferative disorders.
133168PTKc_ALK_LTKcd05036Catalytic domain of the Protein Tyrosine Kinases, Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase and Leukocyte Tyrosine Kinase. Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK) family; Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) and Leukocyte Tyrosine (tyr) Kinase (LTK); catalytic (c) domain. The PTKc family is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other kinases such as protein serine/threonine kinases, RIO kinases, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to tyr residues in protein substrates. ALK and LTK are orphan receptor tyr kinases (RTKs) whose ligands are not yet well-defined. RTKs contain an extracellular ligand-binding domain, a transmembrane region, and an intracellular tyr kinase domain. They are usually activated through ligand binding, which causes dimerization and autophosphorylation of the intracellular tyr kinase catalytic domain. ALK appears to play an important role in mammalian neural development as well as visceral muscle differentiation in Drosophila. ALK is aberrantly expressed as fusion proteins, due to chromosomal translocations, in about 60% of anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs). ALK fusion proteins are also found in rare cases of diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCLs). LTK is mainly expressed in B lymphocytes and neuronal tissues. It is important in cell proliferation and survival. Transgenic mice expressing TLK display retarded growth and high mortality rate. In addition, a polymorphism in mouse and human LTK is implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus.
133227PTKc_DDR1cd05096Catalytic domain of the Protein Tyrosine Kinase, Discoidin Domain Receptor 1. Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK) family; mammalian Discoidin Domain Receptor 1 (DDR1) and homologs; catalytic (c) domain. The PTKc family is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other kinases such as protein serine/threonine kinases, RIO kinases, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to tyrosine (tyr) residues in protein substrates. DDR1 is a member of the DDR subfamily, which are receptor tyr kinases (RTKs) containing an extracellular discoidin homology domain, a transmembrane segment, an extended juxtamembrane region, and an intracellular catalytic domain. The binding of the ligand, collagen, to DDRs results in a slow but sustained receptor activation. DDR1 binds to all collagens tested to date (types I-IV). It is widely expressed in many tissues. It is abundant in the brain and is also found in keratinocytes, colonic mucosa epithelium, lung epithelium, thyroid follicles, and the islets of Langerhans. During embryonic development, it is found in the developing neuroectoderm. DDR1 is a key regulator of cell morphogenesis, differentiation and proliferation. It is important in the development of the mammary gland, the vasculator and the kidney. DDR1 is also found in human leukocytes, where it facilitates cell adhesion, migration, maturation, and cytokine production.
173651PTKc_DDR2cd05095Catalytic domain of the Protein Tyrosine Kinase, Discoidin Domain Receptor 2. Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK) family; mammalian Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 (DDR2) and homologs; catalytic (c) domain. The PTKc family is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other kinases such as protein serine/threonine kinases, RIO kinases, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to tyrosine (tyr) residues in protein substrates. DDR2 is a member of the DDR subfamily, which are receptor tyr kinases (RTKs) containing an extracellular discoidin homology domain, a transmembrane segment, an extended juxtamembrane region, and an intracellular catalytic domain. The binding of the ligand, collagen, to DDRs results in a slow but sustained receptor activation. DDR2 binds mostly to fibrillar collagens. More recently, it has been reported to also bind collagen X. DDR2 is widely expressed in many tissues with the highest levels found in skeletal muscle, skin, kidney and lung. It is important in cell proliferation and development. Mice, with a deletion of DDR2, suffer from dwarfism and delayed healing of epidermal wounds. DDR2 also contributes to collagen (type I) regulation by inhibiting fibrillogenesis and altering the morphology of collagen fibers. It is also expressed in immature dendritic cells (DCs), where it plays a role in DC activation and function.
133216PTKc_Fercd05085Catalytic domain of the Protein Tyrosine Kinase, Fer. Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK) family; Fer kinase; catalytic (c) domain. The PTKc family is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other kinases such as protein serine/threonine kinases, RIO kinases, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to tyrosine (tyr) residues in protein substrates. Fer kinase is a member of the Fes subfamily of proteins which are cytoplasmic (or nonreceptor) tyr kinases containing an N-terminal region with FCH (Fes/Fer/CIP4 homology) and coiled-coil domains, followed by a SH2 domain, and a C-terminal catalytic domain. Fer kinase is expressed in a wide variety of tissues, and is found to reside in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. It plays important roles in neuronal polarization and neurite development, cytoskeletal reorganization, cell migration, growth factor signaling, and the regulation of cell-cell interactions mediated by adherens junctions and focal adhesions. Fer kinase also regulates cell cycle progression in malignant cells.
133229PTKc_FGFR1cd05098Catalytic domain of the Protein Tyrosine Kinase, Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1. Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK) family; Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR1); catalytic (c) domain. The PTKc family is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other kinases such as protein serine/threonine kinases, RIO kinases, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to tyrosine (tyr) residues in protein substrates. FGFR1 is part of the FGFR subfamily, which are receptor tyr kinases (RTKs) containing an extracellular ligand-binding region with three immunoglobulin-like domains, a transmembrane segment, and an intracellular catalytic domain. The binding of FGFRs to their ligands, the FGFs, results in receptor dimerization and activation, and intracellular signaling. The binding of FGFs to FGFRs is promiscuous, in that a receptor may be activated by several ligands and a ligand may bind to more that one type of receptor. Alternative splicing of FGFR1 transcripts produces a variety of isoforms, which are differentially expressed in cells. FGFR1 binds the ligands, FGF1 and FGF2, with high affinity and has also been reported to bind FGF4, FGF6, and FGF9. FGFR1 signaling is critical in the control of cell migration during embryo development. It promotes cell proliferation in fibroblasts. Nuclear FGFR1 plays a role in the regulation of transcription. Mutations, insertions or deletions of FGFR1 have been identified in patients with Kallman's syndrome (KS), an inherited disorder characterized by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and loss of olfaction. Aberrant FGFR1 expression has been found in some human cancers including 8P11 myeloproliferative syndrome (EMS), breast cancer, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
173652PTKc_FGFR3cd05100Catalytic domain of the Protein Tyrosine Kinase, Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3. Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK) family; Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 (FGFR3); catalytic (c) domain. The PTKc family is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other kinases such as protein serine/threonine kinases, RIO kinases, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to tyrosine (tyr) residues in protein substrates. FGFR3 is part of the FGFR subfamily, which are receptor tyr kinases (RTKs) containing an extracellular ligand-binding region with three immunoglobulin-like domains, a transmembrane segment, and an intracellular catalytic domain. The binding of FGFRs to their ligands, the FGFs, results in receptor dimerization and activation, and intracellular signaling. The binding of FGFs to FGFRs is promiscuous, in that a receptor may be activated by several ligands and a ligand may bind to more that one type of receptor. Many FGFR3 splice variants have been reported with the IIIb and IIIc isoforms being the predominant forms. FGFR3 IIIc is the isoform expressed in chondrocytes, the cells affected in dwarfism, while IIIb is expressed in epithelial cells. FGFR3 ligands include FGF1, FGF2, FGF4, FGF8, FGF9, and FGF23. It is a negative regulator of long bone growth. In the cochlear duct and in the lens, FGFR3 is involved in differentiation while it appears to have a role in cell proliferation in epithelial cells. Germline mutations in FGFR3 are associated with skeletal disorders including several forms of dwarfism. Some missense mutations are associated with multiple myeloma and carcinomas of the bladder and cervix. Overexpression of FGFR3 is found in thyroid carcinoma.
133230PTKc_FGFR4cd05099Catalytic domain of the Protein Tyrosine Kinase, Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 4. Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK) family; Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 4 (FGFR4); catalytic (c) domain. The PTKc family is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other kinases such as protein serine/threonine kinases, RIO kinases, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to tyrosine (tyr) residues in protein substrates. FGFR4 is part of the FGFR subfamily, which are receptor tyr kinases (RTKs) containing an extracellular ligand-binding region with three immunoglobulin-like domains, a transmembrane segment, and an intracellular catalytic domain. The binding of FGFRs to their ligands, the FGFs, results in receptor dimerization and activation, and intracellular signaling. The binding of FGFs to FGFRs is promiscuous, in that a receptor may be activated by several ligands and a ligand may bind to more that one type of receptor. Unlike other FGFRs, there is only one splice form of FGFR4. It binds FGF1, FGF2, FGF6, FGF19, and FGF23. FGF19 is a selective ligand for FGFR4. Although disruption of FGFR4 in mice causes no obvious phenotype, in vivo inhibition of FGFR4 in cultured skeletal muscle cells resulted in an arrest of muscle progenitor differentiation. FGF6 and FGFR4 are uniquely expressed in myofibers and satellite cells. FGF6/FGFR4 signaling appears to play a key role in the regulation of muscle regeneration. A polymorphism in FGFR4 is found in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
133201PTKc_Fyn_Yrkcd05070Catalytic domain of the Protein Tyrosine Kinases, Fyn and Yrk. Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK) family; Fyn and Yrk kinases; catalytic (c) domain. The PTKc family is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other kinases such as protein serine/threonine kinases, RIO kinases, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to tyrosine (tyr) residues in protein substrates. Fyn and Yrk are members of the Src subfamily of proteins, which are cytoplasmic (or non-receptor) tyr kinases. Src kinases contain an N-terminal SH4 domain with a myristoylation site, followed by SH3 and SH2 domains, a tyr kinase domain, and a regulatory C-terminal region containing a conserved tyr. They are activated by autophosphorylation at the tyr kinase domain, but are negatively regulated by phosphorylation at the C-terminal tyr by Csk (C-terminal Src Kinase). Src proteins are involved in signaling pathways that regulate cytokine and growth factor responses, cytoskeleton dynamics, cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Fyn, together with Lck, plays a critical role in T-cell signal transduction by phosphorylating ITAM (immunoreceptor tyr activation motif) sequences on T-cell receptors, ultimately leading to the proliferation and differentiation of T-cells. In addition, Fyn is involved in the myelination of neurons, and is implicated in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Yrk has been detected only in chickens. It is primarily found in neuronal and epithelial cells and in macrophages. It may play a role in inflammation and in response to injury.
173625PTKc_InsR_likecd05032Catalytic domain of Insulin Receptor-like Protein Tyrosine Kinases. Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK) family; Insulin Receptor (InsR) subfamily; catalytic (c) domain. The PTKc family is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other kinases such as protein serine/threonine kinases, RIO kinases, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). The InsR subfamily is composed of InsR, Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor (IGF-1R), and similar proteins. PTKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to tyrosine (tyr) residues in protein substrates. InsR and IGF-1R are receptor tyr kinases (RTKs) composed of two alphabeta heterodimers. Binding of the ligand (insulin, IGF-1, or IGF-2) to the extracellular alpha subunit activates the intracellular tyr kinase domain of the transmembrane beta subunit. Receptor activation leads to autophosphorylation, stimulating downstream kinase activities, which initiate signaling cascades and biological function. InsR and IGF-1R, which share 84% sequence identity in their kinase domains, display physiologically distinct yet overlapping functions in cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. InsR activation leads primarily to metabolic effects while IGF-1R activation stimulates mitogenic pathways. In cells expressing both receptors, InsR/IGF-1R hybrids are found together with classical receptors. Both receptors can interact with common adaptor molecules such as IRS-1 and IRS-2.
133235PTKc_Kitcd05104Catalytic domain of the Protein Tyrosine Kinase, Kit. Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK) family; Kit (or c-Kit); catalytic (c) domain. The PTKc family is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other kinases such as protein serine/threonine kinases, RIO kinases, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to tyrosine (tyr) residues in protein substrates. Kit is a member of the Platelet Derived Growth Factor Receptor (PDGFR) subfamily of proteins, which are receptor tyr kinases (RTKs) containing an extracellular ligand-binding region with five immunoglobulin-like domains, a transmembrane segment, and an intracellular catalytic domain. The binding of Kit to its ligand, the stem-cell factor (SCF), leads to receptor dimerization, trans phosphorylation and activation, and intracellular signaling. Kit is important in the development of melanocytes, germ cells, mast cells, hematopoietic stem cells, the interstitial cells of Cajal, and the pacemaker cells of the GI tract. Kit signaling is involved in major cellular functions including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and chemotaxis. Mutations in Kit, which result in constitutive ligand-independent activation, are found in human cancers such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT). The aberrant expression of Kit and/or SCF is associated with other tumor types such as systemic mastocytosis and cancers of the breast, neurons, lung, prostate, colon, and rectum. Although the structure of the human Kit catalytic domain is known, it is excluded from this specific alignment model because it contains a deletion in its sequence.
173653PTKc_PDGFR_alphacd05105Catalytic domain of the Protein Tyrosine Kinase, Platelet Derived Growth Factor Receptor alpha. Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK) family; Platelet Derived Growth Factor Receptor (PDGFR) alpha; catalytic (c) domain. The PTKc family is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other kinases such as protein serine/threonine kinases, RIO kinases, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to tyrosine (tyr) residues in protein substrates. PDGFR alpha is a receptor tyr kinase (RTK) containing an extracellular ligand-binding region with five immunoglobulin-like domains, a transmembrane segment, and an intracellular catalytic domain. The binding to its ligands, the PDGFs, leads to receptor dimerization, trans phosphorylation and activation, and intracellular signaling. PDGFR alpha forms homodimers or heterodimers with PDGFR beta, depending on the nature of the PDGF ligand. PDGF-AA, PDGF-AB, and PDGF-CC induce PDGFR alpha homodimerization. PDGFR signaling plays many roles in normal embryonic development and adult physiology. PDGFR alpha signaling is important in the formation of lung alveoli, intestinal villi, mesenchymal dermis, and hair follicles, as well as in the development of oligodendrocytes, retinal astrocytes, neural crest cells, and testicular cells. Aberrant PDGFR alpha expression is associated with some human cancers. Mutations in PDGFR alpha have been found within a subset of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). An active fusion protein FIP1L1-PDGFR alpha, derived from interstitial deletion, is associated with idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) and chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL).
133179PTKc_Rorcd05048Catalytic Domain of the Protein Tyrosine Kinases, Receptor tyrosine kinase-like Orphan Receptors. Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK) family; Receptor tyrosine kinase-like Orphan Receptor (Ror) subfamily; catalytic (c) domain. The Ror subfamily consists of Ror1, Ror2, and similar proteins. The PTKc family is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other kinases such as protein serine/threonine kinases, RIO kinases, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to tyrosine (tyr) residues in protein substrates. Ror proteins are orphan receptor tyr kinases (RTKs) containing an extracellular region with immunoglobulin-like, cysteine-rich, and kringle domains, a transmembrane segment, and an intracellular catalytic domain. Ror RTKs are unrelated to the nuclear receptor subfamily called retinoid-related orphan receptors (RORs). RTKs are usually activated through ligand binding, which causes dimerization and autophosphorylation of the intracellular tyr kinase catalytic domain. Ror kinases are expressed in many tissues during development. They play important roles in bone and heart formation. Mutations in human Ror2 result in two different bone development genetic disorders, recessive Robinow syndrome and brachydactyly type B. Drosophila Ror is expressed only in the developing nervous system during neurite outgrowth and neuronal differentiation, suggesting a role for Drosophila Ror in neural development. More recently, mouse Ror1 and Ror2 have also been found to play an important role in regulating neurite growth in central neurons. Ror1 and Ror2 are believed to have some overlapping and redundant functions.
133221PTKc_Ror1cd05090Catalytic domain of the Protein Tyrosine Kinase, Receptor tyrosine kinase-like Orphan Receptor 1. Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK) family; Receptor tyrosine kinase-like Orphan Receptor 1 (Ror1); catalytic (c) domain. The PTKc family is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other kinases such as protein serine/threonine kinases, RIO kinases, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to tyrosine (tyr) residues in protein substrates. Ror proteins are orphan receptor tyr kinases (RTKs) containing an extracellular region with immunoglobulin-like, cysteine-rich, and kringle domains, a transmembrane segment, and an intracellular catalytic domain. Ror RTKs are unrelated to the nuclear receptor subfamily called retinoid-related orphan receptors (RORs). RTKs are usually activated through ligand binding, which causes dimerization and autophosphorylation of the intracellular tyr kinase catalytic domain. Ror kinases are expressed in many tissues during development. Avian Ror1 was found to be involved in late limb development. Studies in mice reveal that Ror1 is important in the regulation of neurite growth in central neurons, as well as in respiratory development. Loss of Ror1 also enhances the heart and skeletal abnormalities found in Ror2-deficient mice.
133248PTKc_Srm_Brkcd05148Catalytic domain of the Protein Tyrosine Kinases, Srm and Brk. Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK) family; Src-related kinase lacking C-terminal regulatory tyrosine and N-terminal myristylation sites (Srm) and breast tumor kinase (Brk, also called protein tyrosine kinase 6); catalytic (c) domains. The PTKc family is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other kinases such as protein serine/threonine kinases, RIO kinases, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to tyrosine (tyr) residues in protein substrates. Srm and Brk are a member of the Src subfamily of proteins, which are cytoplasmic (or non-receptor) tyr kinases. Src kinases in general contain an N-terminal SH4 domain with a myristoylation site, followed by SH3 and SH2 domains, a tyr kinase domain, and a regulatory C-terminal region containing a conserved tyr; they are activated by autophosphorylation at the tyr kinase domain, but are negatively regulated by phosphorylation at the C-terminal tyr by Csk (C-terminal Src Kinase). Srm and Brk however, lack the N-terminal myristylation sites. Src proteins are involved in signaling pathways that regulate cytokine and growth factor responses, cytoskeleton dynamics, cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Brk has been found to be overexpressed in a majority of breast tumors.
173637PTKc_Tec_likecd05059Catalytic domain of Tec-like Protein Tyrosine Kinases. Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK) family; Tyrosine kinase expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (Tec) subfamily; catalytic (c) domain. The Tec subfamily is composed of Tec, Btk, Bmx (Etk), Itk (Tsk, Emt), Rlk (Txk), and similar proteins. The PTKc family is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other kinases such as protein serine/threonine kinases, RIO kinases, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to tyrosine (tyr) residues in protein substrates. Tec kinases are cytoplasmic (or nonreceptor) tyr kinases (nRTKs) with similarity to Src kinases in that they contain Src homology protein interaction domains (SH3, SH2) N-terminal to the catalytic tyr kinase domain. Unlike Src kinases, most Tec subfamily members (except Rlk) also contain an N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, which binds the products of PI3K and allows membrane recruitment and activation. In addition, some members contain the Tec homology (TH) domain, which contains proline-rich and zinc-binding regions. Tec kinases form the second largest subfamily of nRTKs and are expressed mainly by haematopoietic cells, although Tec and Bmx are also found in endothelial cells. B-cells express Btk and Tec, while T-cells express Itk, Txk, and Tec. Collectively, Tec kinases are expressed in a variety of myeloid cells such as mast cells, platelets, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Each Tec kinase shows a distinct cell-type pattern of expression. The function of Tec kinases in lymphoid cells have been studied extensively. They play important roles in the development, differentiation, maturation, regulation, survival, and function of B-cells and T-cells. Mutations in Btk cause the severe B-cell immunodeficiency, X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA).
173658PTKc_Tec_Rlkcd05114Catalytic domain of the Protein Tyrosine Kinases, Tyrosine kinase expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and Resting lymphocyte kinase. Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK) family; Tyrosine kinase expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (Tec) and Resting lymphocyte kinase (Rlk); catalytic (c) domain. The PTKc family is part of a larger superfamily, that includes the catalytic domains of other kinases such as protein serine/threonine kinases, RIO kinases, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to tyrosine (tyr) residues in protein substrates. Tec and Rlk (also named Txk) are members of the Tec subfamily of proteins, which are cytoplasmic (or nonreceptor) tyr kinases with similarity to Src kinases in that they contain Src homology protein interaction domains (SH3, SH2) N-terminal to the catalytic tyr kinase domain. Unlike Src kinases, most Tec subfamily members (except Rlk) also contain an N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, which binds the products of PI3K and allows membrane recruitment and activation. Instead of PH, Rlk contains an N-terminal cysteine-rich region. In addition to PH, Tec also contains the Tec homology (TH) domain with proline-rich and zinc-binding regions. Tec kinases are expressed mainly by haematopoietic cells. Tec is more widely-expressed than other Tec subfamily kinases. It is found in endothelial cells, both B- and T-cells, and a variety of myeloid cells including mast cells, erythroid cells, platelets, macrophages and neutrophils. Rlk is expressed in T-cells and mast cell lines. Tec and Rlk are both key components of T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling. They are important in TCR-stimulated proliferation, IL-2 production and phopholipase C-gamma1 activation.
133219PTKc_Tie2cd05088Catalytic domain of the Protein Tyrosine Kinase, Tie2. Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK) family; Tie2; catalytic (c) domain. The PTKc family is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other kinases such as protein serine/threonine kinases, RIO kinases, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to tyrosine (tyr) residues in protein substrates. Tie2 is a receptor tyr kinase (RTK) containing an extracellular region, a transmembrane segment, and an intracellular catalytic domain. The extracellular region contains an immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain, three epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains, a second Ig-like domain, and three fibronectin type III repeats. Tie2 is expressed mainly in endothelial cells and hematopoietic stem cells. It is also found in a subset of tumor-associated monocytes and eosinophils. The angiopoietins (Ang-1 to Ang-4) serve as ligands for Tie2. The binding of Ang-1 to Tie2 leads to receptor autophosphorylation and activation, promoting cell migration and survival. In contrast, Ang-2 binding to Tie2 does not result in the same response, suggesting that Ang-2 may function as an antagonist. Tie2 signaling plays key regulatory roles in vascular integrity and quiescence, and in inflammation.
133211PTKc_Tyk2_rpt2cd05080Catalytic (repeat 2) domain of the Protein Tyrosine Kinase, Tyrosine kinase 2. Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK) family; Tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2); catalytic (c) domain (repeat 2). The PTKc family is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other kinases such as protein serine/threonine kinases, RIO kinases, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to tyrosine (tyr) residues in protein substrates. Tyk2 is a member of the Janus kinase (Jak) subfamily of proteins, which are cytoplasmic (or nonreceptor) tyr kinases containing an N-terminal FERM domain, followed by a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, a pseudokinase domain, and a C-terminal tyr kinase catalytic domain. Jaks are crucial for cytokine receptor signaling. They are activated by autophosphorylation upon cytokine-induced receptor aggregation, and subsequently trigger downstream signaling events such as the phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs). Tyk2 is widely expressed in many tissues. It is involved in signaling via the cytokine receptors IFN-alphabeta, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, and IL-23. It mediates cell surface urokinase receptor (uPAR) signaling and plays a role in modulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) functional behavior in response to injury. Tyk2 is also important in dendritic cell function and T helper (Th)1 cell differentiation. A homozygous mutation of Tyk2 was found in a patient with hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES), a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent skin abscesses, pneumonia, and elevated serum IgE. This suggests that Tyk2 may play important roles in multiple cytokine signaling involved in innate and adaptive immunity.
133207PTK_Tyk2_rpt1cd05076Pseudokinase (repeat 1) domain of the Protein Tyrosine Kinase, Tyrosine kinase 2. Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK) family; Tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2); pseudokinase domain (repeat 1). The PTKc (catalytic domain) family to which this subfamily belongs, is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other kinases such as protein serine/threonine kinases, RIO kinases, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to tyrosine (tyr) residues in protein substrates. Tyk2 is a member of the Janus kinase (Jak) subfamily of proteins, which are cytoplasmic (or nonreceptor) tyr kinases containing an N-terminal FERM domain, followed by a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, a pseudokinase domain, and a C-terminal tyr kinase domain. The pseudokinase domain shows similarity to tyr kinases but lacks crucial residues for catalytic activity and ATP binding. It modulates the kinase activity of the C-terminal catalytic domain. Jaks are crucial for cytokine receptor signaling. They are activated by autophosphorylation upon cytokine-induced receptor aggregation, and subsequently trigger downstream signaling events such as the phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs). Tyk2 is widely expressed in many tissues. It is involved in signaling via the cytokine receptors IFN-alphabeta, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, and IL-23. It mediates cell surface urokinase receptor (uPAR) signaling and plays a role in modulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) functional behavior in response to injury. Tyk2 is also important in dendritic cell function and T helper (Th)1 cell differentiation. A homozygous mutation of Tyk2 was found in a patient with hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES), a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent skin abscesses, pneumonia, and elevated serum IgE. This suggests that Tyk2 may play important roles in multiple cytokine signaling involved in innate and adaptive immunity.
220225PUBpfam09409PUB domain. The PUB (also known as PUG) domain is found in peptide N-glycanase where it functions as a AAA ATPase binding domain. This domain is also found on other proteins linked to the ubiquitin-proteasome system.
99894PWWPcd05162The PWWP domain, named for a conserved Pro-Trp-Trp-Pro motif, is a small domain consisting of 100-150 amino acids. The PWWP domain is found in numerous proteins that are involved in cell division, growth and differentiation. Most PWWP-domain proteins seem to be nuclear, often DNA-binding, proteins that function as transcription factors regulating a variety of developmental processes. The function of the PWWP domain is still not known precisely; however, based on the fact that other regions of PWWP-domain proteins are responsible for nuclear localization and DNA-binding, is likely that the PWWP domain acts as a site for protein-protein binding interactions, influencing chromatin remodeling and thereby regulating transcriptional processes. Some PWWP-domain proteins have been linked to cancer or other diseases; some are known to function as growth factors.
132768PX_domaincd06093The Phox Homology domain, a phosphoinositide binding module. The PX domain is a phosphoinositide (PI) binding module involved in targeting proteins to membranes. Proteins containing PX domains interact with PIs and have been implicated in highly diverse functions such as cell signaling, vesicular trafficking, protein sorting, lipid modification, cell polarity and division, activation of T and B cells, and cell survival. Many members of this superfamily bind phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) but in some cases, other PIs such as PI4P or PI(3,4)P2, among others, are the preferred substrates. In addition to protein-lipid interaction, the PX domain may also be involved in protein-protein interaction, as in the cases of p40phox, p47phox, and some sorting nexins (SNXs). The PX domain is conserved from yeast to humans and is found in more than 100 proteins. The majority of PX domain-containing proteins are SNXs, which play important roles in endosomal sorting.
132798PX_FISHcd06888The phosphoinositide binding Phox Homology domain of Five SH protein. The PX domain is a phosphoinositide (PI) binding module present in many proteins with diverse functions such as cell signaling, vesicular trafficking, protein sorting, and lipid modification, among others. Five SH (FISH), also called Tks5, is a scaffolding protein and Src substrate that is localized in podosomes, which are electron-dense structures found in Src-transformed fibroblasts, osteoclasts, macrophages, and some invasive cancer cells. FISH contains an N-terminal PX domain and five Src homology 3 (SH3) domains. FISH binds and regulates some members of the ADAMs family of transmembrane metalloproteases, which function as sheddases and mediators of cell and matrix interactions. It is required for podosome formation, degradation of the extracellular matrix, and cancer cell invasion. This subfamily also includes proteins with a different number of SH3 domains than FISH, such as Tks4, which contains four SH3 domains instead of five. The Tks4 adaptor protein is required for the formation of functional podosomes. It has overlapping, but not identical, functions as FISH. The PX domain is involved in targeting of proteins to PI-enriched membranes, and may also be involved in protein-protein interaction.
132810PX_RUNcd07277The phosphoinositide binding Phox Homology domain of uncharacterized proteins containing PX and RUN domains. The PX domain is a phosphoinositide (PI) binding module involved in targeting proteins to PI-enriched membranes. Members in this subfamily are uncharacterized proteins containing an N-terminal RUN domain and a C-terminal PX domain. PX domain harboring proteins have been implicated in highly diverse functions such as cell signaling, vesicular trafficking, protein sorting, lipid modification, cell polarity and division, activation of T and B cells, and cell survival. In addition to protein-lipid interaction, the PX domain may also be involved in protein-protein interaction. The RUN domain is found in GTPases in the Rap and Rab families and may play a role in Ras-like signaling pathways.
132803PX_SNX19cd06893The phosphoinositide binding Phox Homology domain of Sorting Nexin 19. The PX domain is a phosphoinositide (PI) binding module present in many proteins with diverse functions. Sorting nexins (SNXs) make up the largest group among PX domain containing proteins. They are involved in regulating membrane traffic and protein sorting in the endosomal system. The PX domain of SNXs binds PIs and targets the protein to PI-enriched membranes. SNXs differ from each other in PI-binding specificity and affinity, and the presence of other protein-protein interaction domains, which help determine subcellular localization and specific function in the endocytic pathway. SNX19 contains an N-terminal PXA domain, a central PX domain, and a C-terminal domain that is conserved in some SNXs. These domains are also found in SNX13 and SNX14, which also contain a regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) domain in between the PXA and PX domains. SNX19 interacts with IA-2, a major autoantigen found in type-1 diabetes. It inhibits the conversion of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] to PI(3,4,5)P3, which leads in the decrease of protein phosphorylation in the Akt signaling pathway, resulting in apoptosis. SNX19 may also be implicated in coronary heart disease and thyroid oncocytic tumors.
132782PX_SNX19_like_plantcd06872The phosphoinositide binding Phox Homology domain of uncharacterized SNX19-like plant proteins. The PX domain is a phosphoinositide (PI) binding module involved in targeting proteins to PI-enriched membranes. Members in this subfamily are uncharacterized plant proteins containing an N-terminal PXA domain, a central PX domain, and a C-terminal domain that is conserved in some sorting nexins (SNXs). This is the same domain architecture found in SNX19. SNX13 and SNX14 also contain these three domains but also contain a regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) domain in between the PXA and PX domains. SNXs make up the largest group among PX domain containing proteins. They are involved in regulating membrane traffic and protein sorting in the endosomal system. The PX domain of SNXs binds PIs and targets the protein to PI-enriched membranes. SNXs differ from each other in PI-binding specificity and affinity, and the presence of other protein-protein interaction domains, which help determine subcellular localization and specific function in the endocytic pathway. In addition to protein-lipid interaction, the PX domain may also be involved in protein-protein interaction.
132788PX_SNX25cd06878The phosphoinositide binding Phox Homology domain of Sorting Nexin 25. The PX domain is a phosphoinositide (PI) binding module present in many proteins with diverse functions. Sorting nexins (SNXs) make up the largest group among PX domain containing proteins. They are involved in regulating membrane traffic and protein sorting in the endosomal system. The PX domain of SNXs binds PIs and targets the protein to PI-enriched membranes. SNXs differ from each other in PI-binding specificity and affinity, and the presence of other protein-protein interaction domains, which help determine subcellular localization and specific function in the endocytic pathway. The function of SNX25 is not yet known. It has been found in exosomes from human malignant pleural effusions. SNX25 shows the same domain architecture as SNX13 and SNX14, containing an N-terminal PXA domain, a regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) domain, a PX domain, and a C-terminal domain that is conserved in some SNXs.
132818PX_SNX9cd07285The phosphoinositide binding Phox Homology domain of Sorting Nexin 9. The PX domain is a phosphoinositide (PI) binding module present in many proteins with diverse functions. Sorting nexins (SNXs) make up the largest group among PX domain containing proteins. They are involved in regulating membrane traffic and protein sorting in the endosomal system. The PX domain of SNXs binds PIs and targets the protein to PI-enriched membranes. SNXs differ from each other in PI-binding specificity and affinity, and the presence of other protein-protein interaction domains, which help determine subcellular localization and specific function in the endocytic pathway. SNX9, also known as SH3PX1, is a cytosolic protein that interacts with proteins associated with clathrin-coated pits such as Cdc-42-associated tyrosine kinase 2 (ACK2). It contains an N-terminal Src Homology 3 (SH3) domain, a PX domain, and a C-terminal Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain, which detects membrane curvature. The PX-BAR structural unit helps determine specific membrane localization. Through its SH3 domain, SNX9 binds class I polyproline sequences found in dynamin 1/2 and the WASP/N-WASP actin regulators. SNX9 is localized to plasma membrane endocytic sites and acts primarily in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Its array of interacting partners suggests that SNX9 functions at the interface between endocytosis and actin cytoskeletal organization.
176721Pyrincd08305Pyrin: a protein-protein interaction domain. The Pyrin domain (or PYD), also called DAPIN or PAAD, is a subfamily of the Death Domain (DD) superfamily and it functions in several signaling pathways. The Pyrin domain is found at the N-terminus of a variety of proteins and serves as a linker that recruits other domains into signaling complexes. Pyrin-containing proteins include NALPs, ASC (Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD), and the interferon-inducible p200 (IFI-200) family of proteins which includes the human IFI-16, myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA) and absent in melanoma (AIM) 2. NALPs are members of the NBS-LRR family of proteins possessing a tripartite domain structure including a C-terminal LRR (leucine-rich repeats), a central nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain or NACHT (for neuronal apoptosis inhibitor protein, CIITA, HET-E and TP1), and an N-terminal protein-protein interaction domain, which is a Pyrin domain in the case of NALPs. ASC and NALPs are involved in the regulation of inflammation. ASC, NALP1 and NALP3 are involved in the assembly of the 'inflammasome', a multiprotein platform which is formed in response to infection or injury and is responsible for caspase-1 activation and regulation of IL-1beta maturation. NALP12 functions as a negative regulator of inflammation. The p200 proteins are involved in the regulation of cell cycle and differentiation. In general, DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) and Death Effector Domain (DED). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176736Pyrin_ASC-likecd08321Pyrin Death Domain found in ASC. Pyrin Death Domain found in ASC (Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD) and similar proteins. ASC is an adaptor molecule that functions in the assembly of the 'inflammasome', a multiprotein platform, which is responsible for caspase-1 activation and regulation of IL-1beta maturation. ASC contains two domains from the Death Domain (DD) superfamily, an N-terminal pyrin-like domain and a C-terminal Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD). Through these 2 domains, ASC serves as an adaptor for inflammasome integrity and oligomerizes to form supramolecular assemblies. Other members of this subfamily are associated with ATPase domains and their function remains unknown. In general, Pyrin is a subfamily of the DD superfamily and functions in several signaling pathways. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including CARD and Death Effector Domain (DED). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
176735Pyrin_NALPscd08320Pyrin death domain found in NALP proteins. Pyrin Death Domain found in NALP (NACHT, LRR and PYD domains) proteins including NALP1 (CARD7, NLRP1), NALP3 (NLRP3, Cryopyrin, CIAS1), and NALP12 (NLRP12, Monarch-1), among others. Mammals contains at least 14 NALP proteins, named NALP1-14 (or NLRP1-14). NALPs are members of the NBS-LRR family of proteins possessing a tripartite domain structure including a C-terminal LRR (leucine-rich repeats), a central nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain or NACHT (for neuronal apoptosis inhibitor protein, CIITA, HET-E and TP1), and an N-terminal protein-protein interaction domain, which is a Pyrin domain in the case of NALPs. The NBS-LRR family is also referred to as the NLR (Nod-like Receptor) or CATERPILLER (for CARD, transcription enhancer, R-(purine)-binding, pyrin, lots of LRRs) family. NALP1 contains an additional Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) at the C-terminus. NALP1 and NALP3 are both involved in the assembly of the 'inflammasome', a multiprotein platform which is formed in response to infection or injury and is responsible for caspase-1 activation and regulation of IL-1beta maturation. NALP1-inflammasomes recognize specific substances while NALP3-inflammasomes responds to many diverse triggers. Mutations in the NALP3 gene are associated with a broad spectrum of autoinflammatory disorders including Muckle-Wells Syndrome (MWS), familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS), and chronic neurologic cutaneous and articular syndrome (CINCA). NALP12 functions as a negative regulator of inflammation. In general, Pyrin is a subfamily of the Death Domain (DD) superfamily and functions in several signaling pathways. DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including CARD and DED (Death Effector Domain). They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes.
214612RAsmart00314Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain. RasGTP effectors (in cases of AF6, canoe and RalGDS); putative RasGTP effectors in other cases. Kalhammer et al. have shown that not all RA domains bind RasGTP. Predicted structure similar to that determined, and that of the RasGTP-binding domain of Raf kinase. Predicted RA domains in PLC210 and nore1 found to bind RasGTP. Included outliers (Grb7, Grb14, adenylyl cyclases etc.)
176199ribitol-5-phosphate_cd08237ribitol-5-phosphate dehydrogenase. NAD-linked ribitol-5-phosphate dehydrogenase, a member of the MDR/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, oxidizes the phosphate ester of ribitol-5-phosphate to xylulose-5-phosphate of the pentose phosphate pathway. The medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, which contains the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn) and related proteins, is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. MDRs display a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P) binding-Rossmann fold domain of a beta-alpha form and an N-terminal catalytic domain with distant homology to GroES. The MDR group contains a host of activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. Active site zinc has a catalytic role, while structural zinc aids in stability.
100099Ribosomal_L7_archealcd01657Ribosomal protein L7, which is found in archaea and eukaryotes but not in prokaryotes, binds domain II of the 23S rRNA as well as the 5S rRNA and is one of five ribosomal proteins that mediate the interactions 5S rRNA makes with the ribosome. The eukaryotic L7 members have an N-terminal extension not found in the archeal L7 orthologs. L7 is closely related to the ribosomal L30 protein found in eukaryotes and prokaryotes.
100102Ribosomal_L7_L12cd00387Ribosomal protein L7/L12. Ribosomal protein L7/L12 refers to the large ribosomal subunit proteins L7 and L12, which are identical except that L7 is acetylated at the N terminus. It is a component of the L7/L12 stalk, which is located at the surface of the ribosome. The stalk base consists of a portion of the 23S rRNA and ribosomal proteins L11 and L10. An extended C-terminal helix of L10 provides the binding site for L7/L12. L7/L12 consists of two domains joined by a flexible hinge, with the helical N-terminal domain (NTD) forming pairs of homodimers that bind to the extended helix of L10. It is the only multimeric ribosomal component, with either four or six copies per ribosome that occur as two or three dimers bound to the L10 helix. L7/L12 is the only ribosomal protein that does not interact directly with rRNA, but instead has indirect interactions through L10. The globular C-terminal domains of L7/L12 are highly mobile. They are exposed to the cytoplasm and contain binding sites for other molecules. Initiation factors, elongation factors, and release factors are known to interact with the L7/L12 stalk during their GTP-dependent cycles. The binding site for the factors EF-Tu and EF-G comprises L7/L12, L10, L11, the L11-binding region of 23S rRNA, and the sarcin-ricin loop of 23S rRNA. Removal of L7/L12 has minimal effect on factor binding and it has been proposed that L7/L12 induces the catalytically active conformation of EF-Tu and EF-G, thereby stimulating the GTPase activity of both factors. In eukaryotes, the proteins that perform the equivalent function to L7/L12 are called P1 and P2, which do not share sequence similarity with L7/L12. However, a bacterial L7/L12 homolog is found in some eukaryotes, in mitochondria and chloroplasts. In archaea, the protein equivalent to L7/L12 is called aL12 or L12p, but it is closer in sequence to P1 and P2 than to L7/L12.
239551Rieske_RO_Alpha_Ncd03469Rieske non-heme iron oxygenase (RO) family, N-terminal Rieske domain of the oxygenase alpha subunit; The RO family comprise a large class of aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases found predominantly in microorganisms. These enzymes enable microorganisms to tolerate and even exclusively utilize aromatic compounds for growth. ROs consist of two or three components: reductase, oxygenase, and ferredoxin (in some cases) components. The oxygenase component may contain alpha and beta subunits, with the beta subunit having a purely structural function. Some oxygenase components contain only an alpha subunit. The oxygenase alpha subunit has two domains, an N-terminal Rieske domain with an [2Fe-2S] cluster and a C-terminal catalytic domain with a mononuclear Fe(II) binding site. The Rieske [2Fe-2S] cluster accepts electrons from the reductase or ferredoxin component and transfers them to the mononuclear iron for catalysis. Reduced pyridine nucleotide is used as the initial source of two electrons for dioxygen activation.
239556Rieske_T4moCcd03474Toluene-4-monooxygenase effector protein complex (T4mo), Rieske ferredoxin subunit; The Rieske domain is a [2Fe-2S] cluster binding domain involved in electron transfer. T4mo is a four-protein complex that catalyzes the NADH- and O2-dependent hydroxylation of toluene to form p-cresol. T4mo consists of an NADH oxidoreductase (T4moF), a diiron hydroxylase (T4moH), a catalytic effector protein (T4moD), and a Rieske ferredoxin (T4moC). T4moC contains a Rieske domain and functions as an obligate electron carrier between T4moF and T4moH. Rieske ferredoxins are found as subunits of membrane oxidase complexes, cis-dihydrodiol-forming aromatic dioxygenases, bacterial assimilatory nitrite reductases, and arsenite oxidase. Rieske ferredoxins are also found as soluble electron carriers in bacterial dioxygenase and monooxygenase complexes.
239559Rieske_YhfW_Ccd03477YhfW family, C-terminal Rieske domain; YhfW is a protein of unknown function with an N-terminal DadA-like (glycine/D-amino acid dehydrogenase) domain and a C-terminal Rieske domain. The Rieske domain is a [2Fe-2S] cluster binding domain involved in electron transfer. It is commonly found in Rieske non-heme iron oxygenase (RO) systems such as naphthalene and biphenyl dioxygenases, as well as in plant/cyanobacterial chloroplast b6f and mitochondrial cytochrome bc(1) complexes. YhfW is found in bacteria, some eukaryotes and archaea.
146952RNA_pol_Rpb2_7pfam04560RNA polymerase Rpb2, domain 7. RNA polymerases catalyze the DNA dependent polymerisation of RNA. Prokaryotes contain a single RNA polymerase compared to three in eukaryotes (not including mitochondrial. and chloroplast polymerases). Rpb2 is the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase. This domain comprised of the structural domains anchor and clamp. The clamp region (C-terminal) contains a zinc-binding motif. The clamp region is named due to its interaction with the clamp domain found in Rpb1. The domain also contains a region termed "switch 4". The switches within the polymerase are thought to signal different stages of transcription.
153088RNR_Icd01679Class I ribonucleotide reductase. Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the reductive synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides from their corresponding ribonucleotides. It provides the precursors necessary for DNA synthesis. RNRs are separated into three classes based on their metallocofactor usage. Class I RNRs, found in eukaryotes, bacteria, and many viruses, use a diiron-tyrosyl radical. Class II RNRs, found in bacteria, bacteriophage, algae and archaea, use coenzyme B12 (adenosylcobalamin, AdoCbl). Class III RNRs, found in anaerobic bacteria, bacteriophages, and archaea, use an FeS cluster and S-adenosylmethionine to generate a glycyl radical. Many organisms have more than one class of RNR present in their genomes. All three RNRs have a ten-stranded alpha-beta barrel domain that is structurally similar to the domain of PFL (pyruvate formate lyase). Class I RNR is oxygen-dependent and can be subdivided into classes Ia (eukaryotes, prokaryotes, viruses and phages) and Ib (which is found in prokaryotes only). It is a tetrameric enzyme of two alpha and two beta subunits; this model covers the major part of the alpha or large subunit, called R1 in class Ia and R1E in class Ib.
153089RNR_II_dimercd02888Class II ribonucleotide reductase, dimeric form. Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the reductive synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides from their corresponding ribonucleotides. It provides the precursors necessary for DNA synthesis. RNRs are separated into three classes based on their metallocofactor usage. Class I RNRs, found in eukaryotes, bacteria, and bacteriophage, use a diiron-tyrosyl radical. Class II RNRs, found in bacteria, bacteriophage, algae and archaea, use coenzyme B12 (adenosylcobalamin, AdoCbl). Class III RNRs, found in anaerobic bacteria, bacteriophage, and archaea, use an FeS cluster and S-adenosylmethionine to generate a glycyl radical. Many organisms have more than one class of RNR present in their genomes. All three RNRs have a ten-stranded alpha-beta barrel domain that is structurally similar to the domain of PFL (pyruvate formate lyase). Class II RNRs are found in bacteria that can live under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Many, but not all members of this class are found to be homodimers. Adenosylcobalamin interacts directly with an active site cysteine to form the reactive cysteine radical.
240668RRM_SFcd00590RNA recognition motif (RRM) superfamily. RRM, also known as RBD (RNA binding domain) or RNP (ribonucleoprotein domain), is a highly abundant domain in eukaryotes found in proteins involved in post-transcriptional gene expression processes including mRNA and rRNA processing, RNA export, and RNA stability. This domain is 90 amino acids in length and consists of a four-stranded beta-sheet packed against two alpha-helices. RRM usually interacts with ssRNA, but is also known to interact with ssDNA as well as proteins. RRM binds a variable number of nucleotides, ranging from two to eight. The active site includes three aromatic side-chains located within the conserved RNP1 and RNP2 motifs of the domain. The RRM domain is found in a variety heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), proteins implicated in regulation of alternative splicing, and protein components of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs).
202095RyRpfam02026RyR domain. This domain is called RyR for Ryanodine receptor. The domain is found in four copies in the ryanodine receptor. The function of this domain is unknown.
238361S15_NS1_EPRS_RNA-bincd00677S15/NS1/EPRS_RNA-binding domain. This short domain consists of a helix-turn-helix structure, which can bind to several types of RNA. It is found in the ribosomal protein S15, the influenza A viral nonstructural protein (NSA) and in several eukaryotic aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (aaRSs), where it occurs as a single or a repeated unit. It is involved in both protein-RNA interactions by binding tRNA and protein-protein interactions in the formation of tRNA-synthetases into multienzyme complexes. While this domain lacks significant sequence similarity between the subgroups in which it is found, they share similar electrostatic surface potentials and thus are likely to bind to RNA via the same mechanism.
240218S1_eIF1AD_likecd05792S1_eIF1AD_like: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1A domain containing protein (eIF1AD)-like, S1-like RNA-binding domain. eIF1AD is also known as MGC11102 protein. Little is known about the function of eIF1AD. S1-like RNA-binding domains are found in a wide variety of RNA-associated proteins, including translation initiation factor IF1A (also referred to as eIF1A in eukaryotes). eIF1A is essential for translation initiation. eIF1A acts synergistically with eIF1 to mediate assembly of ribosomal initiation complexes at the initiation codon and maintain the accuracy of this process by recognizing and destabilizing aberrant preinitiation complexes from the mRNA. Without eIF1A and eIF1, 43S ribosomal preinitiation complexes can bind to the cap-proximal region, but are unable to reach the initiation codon. eIF1a also enhances the formation of 5'-terminal complexes in the presence of other translation initiation factors.
240190S1_Texcd05685S1_Tex: The C-terminal S1 domain of a transcription accessory factor called Tex, which has been characterized in Bordetella pertussis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The tex gene is essential in Bortella pertusis and is named for its role in toxin expression. Tex has two functional domains, an N-terminal domain homologous to the Escherichia coli maltose repression protein, which is a poorly defined transcriptional factor, and a C-terminal S1 RNA-binding domain. Tex is found in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and archaea.
188876SAM_PNTcd08203Sterile alpha motif (SAM)/Pointed domain. Sterile alpha motif (SAM)/Pointed domain is found in about 40% of transcriptional regulators of ETS family (initially named for Erythroblastosis virus, E26-E Twenty Six). SAM Pointed domain containing proteins of this family additionally have a C-terminal ETS DNA-binding domain. In a few cases, SAM Pointed domain appears as a single domain protein. Members of this group are mostly involved in regulation of embryonic development and growth control in eukaryotes. SAM Pointed domains mediate protein-protein interactions. Depending on the subgroup, they can interact with other SAM Pointed domains forming homo or hetero dimers/oligomers and/or they can recruit a protein kinase to its target which can be a SAM Pointed domain containing protein itself or another protein that has no kinase docking site. Thus, SAM Pointed domains participate in transcriptional regulation and signal transduction. Some genes coding ETS family transcriptional regulators are proto-oncogenes. They are prone to chromosomal translocations resulting in gene fusions. Chimeric proteins with SAM Pointed domains were found in a number of different human tumors including myeloid leukemia, lymphoblastic leukemia, Ewing's sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Members of this family are potential targets for cancer therapy.
176085SAM_PNT-Tel_Yancd08535Sterile alpha motif (SAM)/Pointed domain of Tel/Yan protein. SAM Pointed domain of Tel (Translocation, Ets, Leukemia)/Yan subfamily of ETS transcriptional repressors is a protein-protein interaction domain. SAM Pointed domains of this type of regulators can interact with each other, forming head-to-tail homodimers or homooligomers, and/or interact with SAM Pointed domains of another subfamily of ETS factors forming heterodimers. The oligomeric form is able to block transcription of target genes and is involved in MAPK signaling. They participate in regulation of different processes during embryoniv development including hematopoietic differentiation and eye development. Tel/Yan transcriptional factors are frequent targets of chromosomal translocations resulting in fusions of SAM domain with new neighboring genes. Such chimeric proteins were found in different tumors. Members of this subfamily are potential targets for cancer therapy.
201899SelRpfam01641SelR domain. Methionine sulfoxide reduction is an important process, by which cells regulate biological processes and cope with oxidative stress. MsrA, a protein involved in the reduction of methionine sulfoxides in proteins, has been known for four decades and has been extensively characterized with respect to structure and function. However, recent studies revealed that MsrA is only specific for methionine-S-sulfoxides. Because oxidized methionines occur in a mixture of R and S isomers in vivo, it was unclear how stereo-specific MsrA could be responsible for the reduction of all protein methionine sulfoxides. It appears that a second methionine sulfoxide reductase, SelR, evolved that is specific for methionine-R-sulfoxides, the activity that is different but complementary to that of MsrA. Thus, these proteins, working together, could reduce both stereoisomers of methionine sulfoxide. This domain is found both in SelR proteins and fused with the peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase enzymatic domain pfam01625. The domain has two conserved cysteine and histidines. The domain binds both selenium and zinc. The final cysteine is found to be replaced by the rare amino acid selenocysteine in some members of the family. This family has methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase activity.
240145SIS_Kpsfcd05014KpsF-like protein. KpsF is an arabinose-5-phosphate isomerase which contains SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. SIS domains are found in many phosphosugar isomerases and phosphosugar binding proteins. KpsF catalyzes the reversible reaction of ribulose 5-phosphate to arabinose 5-phosphate. This is the second step in the CMP-Kdo biosynthesis pathway.
176200sorbose_phosphate_recd08238L-sorbose-1-phosphate reductase. L-sorbose-1-phosphate reductase, a member of the MDR family, catalyzes the NADPH-dependent conversion of l-sorbose 1-phosphate to d-glucitol 6-phosphate in the metabolism of L-sorbose to (also converts d-fructose 1-phosphate to d-mannitol 6-phosphate). The medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, which contains the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn) and related proteins, is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. MDRs display a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P) binding-Rossmann fold domain of an beta-alpha form and an N-terminal catalytic domain with distant homology to GroES. The MDR group contains a host of activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. Active site zinc has a catalytic role, while structural zinc aids in stability.
146010Sp100pfam03172Sp100 domain. The function of this domain is unknown. It is about 105 amino acid residues in length and is predicted to be predominantly alpha helical. This domain is usually found at the amino terminus of protein that contain a SAND domain pfam01342.
99901SPBC215_ISWI_likecd05840The PWWP domain is a component of the S. pombe hypothetical protein SPBC215, as well as ISWI complex protein 4. The ISWI (imitation switch) proteins are ATPases responsible for chromatin remodeling in eukaryotes, and SPBC215 is proposed to also bind chromatin. The PWWP domain, named for a conserved Pro-Trp-Trp-Pro motif, is a small domain consisting of 100-150 amino acids. The PWWP domain is found in numerous proteins that are involved in cell division, growth and differentiation. Most PWWP-domain proteins seem to be nuclear, often DNA-binding, proteins that function as transcription factors regulating a variety of developmental processes.
153422Spt4cd07973Transcription elongation factor Spt4. Spt4 is a transcription elongation factor. Three transcription-elongation factors Spt4, Spt5, and Spt6, are conserved among eukaryotes and are essential for transcription via the modulation of chromatin structure. It is known that Spt4, Spt5, and Spt6 are general transcription-elongation factors, controlling transcription both positively and negatively in important regulatory and developmental roles. Spt4 functions entirely in the context of the Spt4-Spt5 heterodimer and it has been found only as a complex to Spt5 in Yeast and Human. Spt4 is a small protein that has zinc finger at the N-terminus. Spt5 is a large protein that has several interesting structural features of an acidic N-terminus, a single NGN domain, five or six KOW domains, and a set of simple C-termianl repeats. Spt4 binds to Spt5 NGN domain. Unlike Spt5, Spt4 is not essential for viability in yeast, however Spt4 is critical for normal function of the Spt4-Spt5 complex. Spt4 homolog is not found in bacteria.
176857SRPBCC_PITPcd07815Lipid-binding SRPBCC domain of Class I and Class II Phosphatidylinositol Transfer Proteins. This family includes the SRPBCC (START/RHO_alpha_C/PITP/Bet_v1/CoxG/CalC) domain of the phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PITP) family of lipid transfer proteins. This family of proteins includes Class 1 PITPs (PITPNA/PITPalpha and PITPNB/PITPbeta, Drosophila vibrator and related proteins), Class IIA PITPs (PITPNM1/PITPalphaI/Nir2, PITPNM2/PITPalphaII/Nir3, Drosophila RdgB, and related proteins), and Class IIB PITPs (PITPNC1/RdgBbeta and related proteins). The PITP family belongs to the SRPBCC domain superfamily of proteins that bind hydrophobic ligands. SRPBCC domains have a deep hydrophobic ligand-binding pocket. In vitro, PITPs bind phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), as well as phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) but with a lower affinity. They transfer these lipids from one membrane compartment to another. The cellular roles of PITPs include inositol lipid signaling, PtdIns metabolism, and membrane trafficking. Class III PITPs, exemplified by the Sec14p family, are found in yeast and plants but are unrelated in sequence and structure to Class I and II PITPs and belong to a different superfamily.
176897SRPBCC_PITPNA-B_likecd08888Lipid-binding SRPBCC domain of mammalian PITPNA, -B, and related proteins (Class I PITPs). This subgroup includes the SRPBCC (START/RHO_alpha_C/PITP/Bet_v1/CoxG/CalC) domain of mammalian Class 1 phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins (PITPs), PITPNA/PITPalpha and PITPNB/PITPbeta, Drosophila vibrator, and related proteins. These are single domain proteins belonging to the PITP family of lipid transfer proteins, and to the SRPBCC domain superfamily of proteins that bind hydrophobic ligands. SRPBCC domains have a deep hydrophobic ligand-binding pocket. In vitro, PITPs bind phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), as well as phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) but with a lower affinity. They transfer these lipids from one membrane compartment to another. The cellular roles of PITPs include inositol lipid signaling, PtdIns metabolism, and membrane trafficking. In addition, PITPNB transfers sphingomyelin in vitro, with a low affinity. PITPNA is found chiefly in the nucleus and cytoplasm; it is enriched in the brain and predominantly localized in the axons. A reduced expression of PITPNA contributes to the neurodegenerative phenotype of the mouse vibrator mutation. The role of PITPNA in vivo may be to provide PtdIns for localized PI3K-dependent signaling, thereby controlling the polarized extension of axonal processes. PITPNA homozygous null mice die soon after birth from complicated organ failure, including intestinal and hepatic steatosis, hypoglycemia, and spinocerebellar disease. PITPNB is associated with the Golgi and ER, and is highly expressed in the liver. Deletion of the PITPNB gene results in embryonic lethality. The PtdIns and PtdCho exchange activity of PITPNB is required for COPI-mediated retrograde transport from the Golgi to the ER. Drosophila vibrator localizes to the ER, and has an essential role in cytokinesis during mitosis and meiosis.
176898SRPBCC_PITPNM1-2_likcd08889Lipid-binding SRPBCC domain of mammalian PITPNM1-2 and related proteins (Class IIA PITPs). This subgroup includes an N-terminal SRPBCC (START/RHO_alpha_C/PITP/Bet_v1/CoxG/CalC) domain of mammalian Class II phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PITPs), PITPNM1/PITPalphaI/Nir2 (PYK2 N-terminal domain-interacting receptor2) and PITPNM2/PITPalphaII/Nir3), Drosophila RdgB, and related proteins. These are membrane associated multidomain proteins belonging to the PITP family of lipid transfer proteins, and to the SRPBCC domain superfamily of proteins that bind hydrophobic ligands. SRPBCC domains have a deep hydrophobic ligand-binding pocket. In vitro, PITPs bind phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), as well as phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) but with a lower affinity. They transfer these lipids from one membrane compartment to another. The cellular roles of PITPs include inositol lipid signaling, PtdIns metabolism, and membrane trafficking. Ablation of the mouse gene encoding PITPNM1 results in early embryonic death. PITPNM1 is localized chiefly to the Golgi apparatus, and under certain conditions translocates to the lipid droplets. Targeting to the latter is dependent on a specific threonine residue within the SRPBCC domain. PITPNM1 plays a part in Golgi-mediated transport. It regulates diacylglycerol (DAG) production at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) via the CDP-choline pathway. Drosophila RdgB, the founding member of the PITP family, is implicated in the visual and olfactory transduction. RdgB is required for maintenance of ultra structure in photoreceptors and for sensory transduction. The mouse PITPNM1 gene rescues the phenotype of Drosophila rdgB mutant flies. In addition to the SRPBCC domain, PITPNM1 and -2 contain a Rho-inhibitory domain (Rid), six hydrophobic stretches, a DDHD calcium binding region, and a C-terminal tyrosine kinase Pyk2-binding / HAD-like phosphohydrolase domain. PITPNM1 has a role in regulating cell morphogenesis through its Rho inhibitory domain (Rid). This SRPBCC_PITPNM1-2_like domain model includes the first 52 residues of the 224 residues Rid (Rho-inhibitory domain).
176851STARTcd00177Lipid-binding START domain of mammalian STARD1-STARD15 and related proteins. This family includes the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR)-related lipid transfer (START) domains of mammalian STARD1-STARD15, and related domains, such as the START domain of the Arabidopsis homeobox protein GLABRA 2. The mammalian STARDs are grouped into 8 subfamilies. This family belongs to the SRPBCC (START/RHO_alpha_C/PITP/Bet_v1/CoxG/CalC) domain superfamily of proteins that bind hydrophobic ligands. SRPBCC domains have a deep hydrophobic ligand-binding pocket. For some members of this family, specific lipids that bind in this pocket are known; these include cholesterol (STARD1/STARD3/ STARD4/STARD5), 25-hydroxycholesterol (STARD5), phosphatidylcholine (STARD2/ STARD7/STARD10), phosphatidylethanolamine (STARD10) and ceramides (STARD11). The START domain is found either alone or in association with other domains. Mammalian STARDs participate in the control of various cellular processes including lipid trafficking between intracellular compartments, lipid metabolism, and modulation of signaling events. Mutation or altered expression of STARDs is linked to diseases such as cancer, genetic disorders, and autoimmune disease. The Arabidopsis homeobox protein GLABRA 2 suppresses root hair formation in hairless epidermal root cells.
173679STKc_aPKCcd05588Catalytic domain of the Protein Serine/Threonine Kinase, Atypical Protein Kinase C. Serine/Threonine Kinases (STKs), Atypical Protein Kinase C (aPKC) subfamily, catalytic (c) domain. STKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to serine/threonine residues on protein substrates. The aPKC subfamily is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other protein STKs, protein tyrosine kinases, RIO kinases, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, choline kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. PKCs are classified into three groups (classical, atypical, and novel) depending on their mode of activation and the structural characteristics of their regulatory domain. aPKCs only require phosphatidylserine (PS) for activation. They contain a C2-like region, instead of a calcium-binding (C2) region found in classical PKCs, in their regulatory domain. There are two aPKC isoforms, zeta and iota. aPKCs are involved in many cellular functions including proliferation, migration, apoptosis, polarity maintenance and cytoskeletal regulation. They also play a critical role in the regulation of glucose metabolism and in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.
173753STKc_CDK12cd07864Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Cyclin-Dependent protein Kinase 12. Serine/Threonine Kinases (STKs), Cyclin-Dependent protein Kinase 12 (CDK12) subfamily, catalytic (c) domain. STKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to serine/threonine residues on protein substrates. The CDK12 subfamily is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other protein STKs, protein tyrosine kinases, RIO kinases, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, choline kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. CDKs belong to a large family of STKs that are regulated by their cognate cyclins. Together, they are involved in the control of cell-cycle progression, transcription, and neuronal function. CDK12 is also called Cdc2-related protein kinase 7 (CRK7) or Cdc2-related kinase arginine/serine-rich (CrkRS). It is a unique CDK that contains an arginine/serine-rich (RS) domain, which is predominantly found in splicing factors. CDK12 is widely expressed in tissues. It interacts with cyclins L1 and L2, and plays roles in regulating transcription and alternative splicing.
143345STKc_CDK9_likecd07840Catalytic domain of Cyclin-Dependent protein Kinase 9-like Serine/Threonine Kinases. Serine/Threonine Kinases (STKs), Cyclin-Dependent protein Kinase 9 (CDK9)-like subfamily, catalytic (c) domain. STKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to serine/threonine residues on protein substrates. The CDK9-like subfamily is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other protein STKs, protein tyrosine kinases, RIO kinases, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, choline kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. CDKs belong to a large family of STKs that are regulated by their cognate cyclins. Together, they are involved in the control of cell-cycle progression, transcription, and neuronal function. This subfamily is composed of CDK9 and CDK12 from higher eukaryotes, yeast BUR1, C-type plant CDKs (CdkC), and similar proteins. CDK9, BUR1, and CdkC are functionally equivalent. They act as a kinase for the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II and participate in regulating mutliple steps of gene expression including transcription elongation and RNA processing. CDK9 and CdkC associate with T-type cyclins while BUR1 associates with the cyclin BUR2. CDK12 is a unique CDK that contains an arginine/serine-rich (RS) domain, which is predominantly found in splicing factors. CDK12 interacts with cyclins L1 and L2, and participates in regulating transcription and alternative splicing.
132967STKc_MAP4K4_6cd06636Catalytic domain of the Protein Serine/Threonine Kinases, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 and 6. Serine/threonine kinases (STKs), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase kinase kinase 4 (MAPKKKK4 or MAP4K4) and MAPKKKK6 (or MAP4K6) subfamily, catalytic (c) domain. STKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to serine/threonine residues on protein substrates. The MAP4K4/MAP4K6 subfamily is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other protein STKs, protein tyrosine kinases, RIO kinases, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, choline kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Members of this subfamily contain an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal citron homology (CNH) regulatory domain. MAP4Ks (or MAPKKKKs) are involved in MAPK signaling pathways that are important in mediating cellular responses to extracellular signals by activating a MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K or MKKK). Each MAPK cascade is activated either by a small GTP-binding protein or by an adaptor protein, which transmits the signal either directly to a MAP3K to start the triple kinase core cascade or indirectly through a mediator kinase, a MAP4K. MAP4K4 is also called Nck Interacting kinase (NIK). It facilitates the activation of the MAPKs, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1, ERK2, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), by phosphorylating and activating MEKK1. MAP4K4 plays a role in tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha-induced insulin resistance. MAP4K4 silencing in skeletal muscle cells from type II diabetic patients restores insulin-mediated glucose uptake. MAP4K4, through JNK, also plays a broad role in cell motility, which impacts inflammation, homeostasis, as well as the invasion and spread of cancer. MAP4K4 is found to be highly expressed in most tumor cell lines relative to normal tissue. MAP4K6 (also called MINK for Misshapen/NIKs-related kinase) is activated after Ras induction and mediates activation of p38 MAPK. MAP4K6 plays a role in cell cycle arrest, cytoskeleton organization, cell adhesion, and cell motility.
173755STKc_Nekcd08215Catalytic domain of the Protein Serine/Threonine Kinase, Never In Mitosis gene A-related kinase. Serine/Threonine Kinases (STKs), Never In Mitosis gene A (NIMA)-related kinase (Nek) family, catalytic (c) domain. STKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to serine/threonine residues on protein substrates. The Nek family is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other protein STKs, protein tyrosine kinases, RIO kinases, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, choline kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. The Nek family is composed of 11 different mammalian members (Nek1-11) with similarity to the catalytic domain of Aspergillus nidulans NIMA kinase, the founding member of the Nek family which was identified in a screen for cell cycle mutants that were prevented from entering mitosis. Neks contain a conserved N-terminal catalytic domain and a more divergent C-terminal regulatory region of various sizes and structures. They are involved in the regulation of downstream processes following the activation of Cdc2, and many of their functions are cell cycle-related. They play critical roles in microtubule dynamics during ciliogenesis and mitosis.
173682STKc_nPKC_epsiloncd05591Catalytic domain of the Protein Serine/Threonine Kinase, Novel Protein Kinase C epsilon. Serine/Threonine Kinases (STKs), Novel Protein Kinase C (nPKC), epsilon isoform, catalytic (c) domain. STKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to serine/threonine residues on protein substrates. The nPKC subfamily is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other protein STKs, protein tyrosine kinases, RIO kinases, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, choline kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. PKCs are classified into three groups (classical, atypical, and novel) depending on their mode of activation and the structural characteristics of their regulatory domain. nPKCs are calcium-independent, but require DAG (1,2-diacylglycerol) and phosphatidylserine (PS) for activity. There are four nPKC isoforms, delta, epsilon, eta, and theta. PKC-epsilon has been shown to behave as an oncoprotein. Its overexpression contributes to neoplastic transformation depending on the cell type. It contributes to oncogenesis by inducing disordered cell growth and inhibiting cell death. It also plays a role in tumor invasion and metastasis. PKC-epsilon has also been found to confer cardioprotection against ischemia and reperfusion-mediated damage. Other cellular functions include the regulation of gene expression, cell adhesion, and cell motility.
173728STKc_PAKcd06614Catalytic domain of the Protein Serine/Threonine Kinase, p21-activated kinase. Serine/threonine kinases (STKs), p21-activated kinase (PAK) subfamily, catalytic (c) domain. STKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to serine/threonine residues on protein substrates. The PAK subfamily is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other protein STKs, protein tyrosine kinases, RIO kinases, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, choline kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. PAKs are Rho family GTPase-regulated kinases that serve as important mediators in the function of Cdc42 (cell division cycle 42) and Rac. PAKs are implicated in the regulation of many cellular processes including growth factor receptor-mediated proliferation, cell polarity, cell motility, cell death and survival, and actin cytoskeleton organization. PAK deregulation is associated with tumor development. PAKs from higher eukaryotes are classified into two groups (I and II), according to their biochemical and structural features. Group I PAKs contain a PBD (p21-binding domain) overlapping with an AID (autoinhibitory domain), a C-terminal catalytic domain, SH3 binding sites and a non-classical SH3 binding site for PIX (PAK-interacting exchange factor). Group II PAKs contain a PBD and a catalytic domain, but lack other motifs found in group I PAKs. Since group II PAKs do not contain an obvious AID, they may be regulated differently from group I PAKs. Group I PAKs interact with the SH3 containing proteins Nck, Grb2 and PIX; no such binding has been demonstrated for group II PAKs.
132990STKc_PAK6cd06659Catalytic domain of the Protein Serine/Threonine Kinase, p21-activated kinase 6. Serine/threonine kinases (STKs), p21-activated kinase (PAK) 6, catalytic (c) domain. STKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to serine/threonine residues on protein substrates. The PAK subfamily is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other protein STKs, protein tyrosine kinases, RIO kinases, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, choline kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. PAKs are Rho family GTPase-regulated kinases that serve as important mediators in the function of Cdc42 (cell division cycle 42) and Rac. PAKs from higher eukaryotes are classified into two groups (I and II), according to their biochemical and structural features. PAK6 belongs to group II. Group II PAKs contain a PBD (p21-binding domain) and a C-terminal catalytic domain, but do not harbor an AID (autoinhibitory domain) or SH3 binding sites. PAK6 may play a role in stress responses through its activation by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 and MAPK kinase 6 (MKK6) pathway. PAK6 is highly expressed in the brain. It is not required for viability, but together with PAK5, it is required for normal levels of locomotion and activity, and for learning and memory. Increased expression of PAK6 is found in primary and metastatic prostate cancer. PAK6 may play a role in the regulation of motility.
132979STKc_PAK_IIcd06648Catalytic domain of the Protein Serine/Threonine Kinase, Group II p21-activated kinase. Serine/threonine kinases (STKs), p21-activated kinase (PAK) subfamily, Group II, catalytic (c) domain. STKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to serine/threonine residues on protein substrates. The PAK subfamily is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other protein STKs, protein tyrosine kinases, RIO kinases, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, choline kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. PAKs are Rho family GTPase-regulated kinases that serve as important mediators in the function of Cdc42 (cell division cycle 42) and Rac. PAKs from higher eukaryotes are classified into two groups (I and II), according to their biochemical and structural features. Group II PAKs, also called non-conventional PAKs, include PAK4, PAK5, and PAK6. Group II PAKs contain PBD (p21-binding domain) and catalytic domains, but lack other motifs found in group I PAKs, such as an AID (autoinhibitory domain) and SH3 binding sites. Since group II PAKs do not contain an obvious AID, they may be regulated differently from group I PAKs. While group I PAKs interact with the SH3 containing proteins Nck, Grb2 and PIX, no such binding has been demonstrated for group II PAKs. Some known substrates of group II PAKs are also substrates of group I PAKs such as Raf, BAD, LIMK and GEFH1. Unique group II substrates include MARK/Par-1 and PDZ-RhoGEF. Group II PAKs play important roles in filopodia formation, neuron extension, cytoskeletal organization, and cell survival.
173711STKc_ROCK2cd05621Catalytic domain of the Protein Serine/Threonine Kinase, Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2. Serine/Threonine Kinases (STKs), ROCK subfamily, ROCK2 (or ROK-alpha) isoform, catalytic (c) domain. STKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to serine/threonine residues on protein substrates. The ROCK subfamily is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other protein STKs, protein tyrosine kinases, RIO kinases, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, choline kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. ROCK contains an N-terminal extension, a catalytic kinase domain, and a C-terminal extension, which contains a coiled-coil region encompassing a Rho-binding domain (RBD) and a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. ROCK is auto-inhibited by the RBD and PH domain interacting with the catalytic domain, and is activated via interaction with Rho GTPases. ROCK2 was the first identified target of activated RhoA, and was found to play a role in stress fiber and focal adhesion formation. It is prominently expressed in the brain, heart, and skeletal muscles. It is implicated in vascular and neurological disorders, such as hypertension and vasospasm of the coronary and cerebral arteries. ROCK2 is also activated by caspase-2 cleavage, resulting in thrombin-induced microparticle generation in response to cell activation. Mice deficient in ROCK2 show intrauterine growth retardation and embryonic lethality because of placental dysfunction.
221591SUFU_Cpfam12470Suppressor of Fused Gli/Ci N terminal binding domain. This domain family is found in eukaryotes, and is typically between 192 and 219 amino acids in length. The family is found in association with pfam05076. There is a conserved HGRHFT sequence motif. This family is the C terminal domain of the Suppressor of Fused protein (Su(fu)). Su(fu) is a repressor of the Gli and Ci transcription factors of the Hedgehog signalling cascade. It functions by binding these proteins and preventing their translocation to the nucleus. The C terminal domain is only found in eukaryotic Su(fu) proteins; it is not present in bacterial homologues. The C terminal domain binds to the N terminal of Gli/Ci while the N terminal of Su(fu) binds to the C terminal of Gli/Ci. This dual binding mechanism is likely an evolutionary advancement in this signalling cascade which is not present in bacterial homologues.
216184T-boxpfam00907T-box. The T-box encodes a 180 amino acid domain that binds to DNA. Genes encoding T-box proteins are found in a wide range of animals, but not in other kingdoms such as plants. Family members are all thought to bind to the DNA consensus sequence TCACACCT. they are found exclusively in the nucleus, and perform DNA-binding and transcriptional activation/repression roles. They are generally required for development of the specific tissues they are expressed in, and mutations in T-box genes are implicated in human conditions such as DiGeorge syndrome and X-linked cleft palate, which feature malformations.
201391TBpfam00683TB domain. This domain is also known as the 8 cysteine domain. This family includes the hybrid domains. This cysteine rich repeat is found in TGF binding protein and fibrillin.
238311Thioesterase_IIcd00556Thioesterase II (TEII) is thought to regenerate misprimed nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) as well as modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) by hydrolyzing acetyl groups bound to the peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) and acyl carrier protein (ACP) domains, respectively. TEII has two tandem asymmetric hot dog folds that are structurally similar to one found in PaaI thioesterase, 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA thioesterase (4HBT) and beta-hydroxydecanoyl-ACP dehydratase and thus, the TEII monomer is equivalent to the homodimeric form of the latter three enzymes. Human TEII is expressed in T cells and has been shown to bind the product of the HIV-1 Nef gene.
239528Thioesterase_II_repecd03444Thioesterase II (TEII) is thought to regenerate misprimed nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) as well as modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) by hydrolyzing acetyl groups bound to the peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) and acyl carrier protein (ACP) domains, respectively. TEII has two tandem asymmetric hot dog folds that are structurally similar to one found in PaaI thioesterase, 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA thioesterase (4HBT) and beta-hydroxydecanoyl-ACP dehydratase and thus, the TEII monomer is equivalent to the homodimeric form of the latter three enzymes. Human TEII is expressed in T cells and has been shown to bind the product of the HIV-1 Nef gene.
239529Thioesterase_II_repecd03445Thioesterase II (TEII) is thought to regenerate misprimed nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) as well as modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) by hydrolyzing acetyl groups bound to the peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) and acyl carrier protein (ACP) domains, respectively. TEII has two tandem asymmetric hot dog folds that are structurally similar to one found in PaaI thioesterase, 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA thioesterase (4HBT) and beta-hydroxydecanoyl-ACP dehydratase and thus, the TEII monomer is equivalent to the homodimeric form of the latter three enzymes. Human TEII is expressed in T cells and has been shown to bind the product of the HIV-1 Nef gene.
216730TIGpfam01833IPT/TIG domain. This family consists of a domain that has an immunoglobulin like fold. These domains are found in cell surface receptors such as Met and Ron as well as in intracellular transcription factors where it is involved in DNA binding. CAUTION: This family does not currently recognise a significant number of members.
147559Tmemb_9pfam05434TMEM9. This family contains several eukaryotic transmembrane proteins which are homologous to human transmembrane protein 9. The TMEM9 gene encodes a 183 amino-acid protein that contains an N-terminal signal peptide, a single transmembrane region, three potential N-glycosylation sites and three conserved cys-rich domains in the N-terminus, but no known functional domains. The protein is highly conserved between species from Caenorhabditis elegans to man and belongs to a novel family of transmembrane proteins. The exact function of TMEM9 is unknown although it has been found to be widely expressed and localised to the late endosomes and lysosomes. Members of this family contain pfam03128 repeats in their N-terminal region.
192955TPX2_importinpfam12214Cell cycle regulated microtubule associated protein. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is typically between 127 to 182 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam06886. This domain is found in the protein TPX2 (a.k.a p100) which is involved in cell cycling. It is only expressed between the start of the S phase and completion of cytokinesis. The microtubule-associated protein TPX2 has been reported to be crucial for mitotic spindle formation. This domain is close to the C terminal of TPX2. The protein importin alpha regulates the activity of TPX2 by binding to the nuclear localisation signal in this domain.
238771Translation_factor_Icd01513Domain III of Elongation factor (EF) Tu (EF-TU) and EF-G. Elongation factors (EF) EF-Tu and EF-G participate in the elongation phase during protein biosynthesis on the ribosome. Their functional cycles depend on GTP binding and its hydrolysis. The EF-Tu complexed with GTP and aminoacyl-tRNA delivers tRNA to the ribosome, whereas EF-G stimulates translocation, a process in which tRNA and mRNA movements occur in the ribosome. Experimental data showed that: (1) intrinsic GTPase activity of EF-G is influenced by excision of its domain III; (2) that EF-G lacking domain III has a 1,000-fold decreased GTPase activity on the ribosome and, a slightly decreased affinity for GTP; and (3) EF-G lacking domain III does not stimulate translocation, despite the physical presence of domain IV which is also very important for translocation. These findings indicate an essential contribution of domain III to activation of GTP hydrolysis. Domains III and V of EF-G have the same fold (although they are not completely superimposable), the double split beta-alpha-beta fold. This fold is observed in a large number of ribonucleotide binding proteins and is also referred to as the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) or RNA recognition (RRM) motif. This domain III is found in several elongation factors, as well as in peptide chain release factors and in GT-1 family of GTPase (GTPBP1).
238059Trefoilcd00111P or trefoil or TFF domain; Trefoil factor family domain peptides are mucin-associated molecules, largely found in epithelia of gastrointestinal tissues. Function is not known but it was originally identified from mucosal tissues, where it may have a regulatory or structural role and has also been implicated as a growth fractor in other tissues.The domain is found in 1 to 6 copies where it occurs.
216440tRNA_antipfam01336OB-fold nucleic acid binding domain. This family contains OB-fold domains that bind to nucleic acids. The family includes the anti-codon binding domain of lysyl, aspartyl, and asparaginyl -tRNA synthetases (See pfam00152). Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the addition of an amino acid to the appropriate tRNA molecule EC:6.1.1.-. This family also includes part of RecG helicase involved in DNA repair. Replication factor A is a heterotrimeric complex, that contains a subunit in this family. This domain is also found at the C-terminus of bacterial DNA polymerase III alpha chain.
239066tRNA_bindingDomaincd02153The tRNA binding domain is also known as the Myf domain in literature. This domain is found in a diverse collection of tRNA binding proteins, including prokaryotic phenylalanyl tRNA synthetases (PheRS), methionyl-tRNA synthetases (MetRS), human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase(hTyrRS), Saccharomyces cerevisiae Arc1p, Thermus thermophilus CsaA, Aquifex aeolicus Trbp111, human p43 and human EMAP-II. PheRS, MetRS and hTyrRS aminoacylate their cognate tRNAs. Arc1p is a transactivator of yeast methionyl-tRNA and glutamyl-tRNA synthetases. The molecular chaperones Trbp111 and CsaA also contain this domain. CsaA has export related activities; Trbp111 is structure-specific recognizing the L-shape of the tRNA fold. This domain has general tRNA binding properties. In a subset of this family this domain has the added capability of a cytokine. For example the p43 component of the Human aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex is cleaved to release EMAP-II cytokine. EMAP-II has multiple activities during apoptosis, angiogenesis and inflammation and participates in malignant transformation. An EMAP-II-like cytokine is released from hTyrRS upon cleavage. The active cytokine heptapeptide locates to this domain. For homodimeric members of this group which include CsaA, Trbp111 and Escherichia coli MetRS this domain acts as a dimerization domain.
149414TRP_2pfam08344Transient receptor ion channel II. This domain is found in the transient receptor ion channel (Trp) family of proteins. There is strong evidence that Trp proteins are structural elements of calcium-ion entry channels activated by G protein-coupled receptors. This domain does not tend to appear with the TRP domain (pfam06011) but is often found to the C-terminus of Ankyrin repeats (pfam00023).
239247TRX_NTRcd02949TRX domain, novel NADPH thioredoxin reductase (NTR) family; composed of fusion proteins found only in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms containing both TRX and NTR domains. The TRX domain functions as a protein disulfide reductase via the reversible oxidation of an active center dithiol present in a CXXC motif, while the NTR domain functions as a reductant to oxidized TRX. The fusion protein is bifunctional, showing both TRX and NTR activities, but it is not an independent NTR/TRX system. In plants, the protein is found exclusively in shoots and mature leaves and is localized in the chloroplast. It is involved in plant protection against oxidative stress.
221466U1snRNP70_Npfam12220U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein of 70kDa MW N terminal. This domain is found in eukaryotes. This domain is about 90 amino acids in length. This domain is found associated with pfam00076. This domain is part of U1 snRNP, which is the pre-mRNA binding protein of the penta-snRNP spliceosome complex. It extends over a distance of 180 A from its RNA binding domain, wraps around the core domain of U1 snRNP consisting of the seven Sm proteins and finally contacts U1-C, which is crucial for 5'-splice-site recognition.
201355UBApfam00627UBA/TS-N domain. This small domain is composed of three alpha helices. This family includes the previously defined UBA and TS-N domains. The UBA-domain (ubiquitin associated domain) is a novel sequence motif found in several proteins having connections to ubiquitin and the ubiquitination pathway. The structure of the UBA domain consists of a compact three helix bundle. This domain is found at the N terminus of EF-TS hence the name TS-N. The structure of EF-TS is known and this domain is implicated in its interaction with EF-TU. The domain has been found in non EF-TS proteins such as alpha-NAC and MJ0280.
176408UBP_Ncd01813UBP ubiquitin processing protease. The UBP (ubiquitin processing protease) domain (also referred to as USP which stands for "ubiquitin-specific protease") is present at in a large family of cysteine proteases that specifically cleave ubiquitin conjugates. This family includes Rpn11, UBP6 (USP14), USP7 (HAUSP). This domain is closely related to the amino-terminal ubiquitin-like domain of BAG1 (Bcl2-associated anthanogene1) protein and is found only in eukaryotes.
221172UNC45-centralpfam11701Myosin-binding striated muscle assembly central. The UNC-45 or small muscle protein 1 of C.elegans is expressed in two forms from different genomic positions in mammals, as a general tissue protein UNC-45a and a specific form Unc-45b expressed only in striated and skeletal muscle. All members carry up to three amino-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains towards their N-terminal, a UCS domain at the C-terminal that contains a number of Arm repeats pfam00514 and this central region of approximately 400 residues. Both the general form and the muscle form of UNC-45 function in myotube formation through cell fusion. Myofibril formation requires both GC and SM UNC-45, consistent with the fact that the cytoskeleton is necessary for the development and maintenance of organised myofibrils. The S. pombe Rng3p, is crucial for cell shape, normal actin cytoskeleton, and contractile ring assembly, and is essential for assembly of the myosin II-containing progenitors of the contractile ring. Widespread defects in the cytoskeleton are found in null mutants of all three fungal proteins. Mammalian Unc45 is found to act as a specific chaperone during the folding of myosin and the assembly of striated muscle by forming a stable complex with the general chaperone Hsp90. The exact function of this central region is not known.
219514V-setpfam07686Immunoglobulin V-set domain. This domain is found in antibodies as well as neural protein P0 and CTL4 amongst others.
239624VHS_GGAcd03567VHS domain family, GGA subfamily; GGA (Golgi-localized, Gamma-ear-containing, Arf-binding) comprise a subfamily of ubiquitously expressed, monomeric, motif-binding cargo/clathrin adaptor proteins. The VHS domain has a superhelical structure similar to the structure of the ARM (Armadillo) repeats and is present at the N-termini of proteins. GGA proteins have a multidomain structure consisting of an N-terminal VHS domain linked by a short proline-rich linker to a GAT (GGA and TOM) domain, which is followed by a long flexible linker to the C-terminal appendage, GAE (gamma-adaptin ear) domain. The VHS domain of GGA proteins binds to the acidic-cluster dileucine (DxxLL) motif found on the cytoplasmic tails of cargo proteins trafficked between the trans-Golgi network and the endosomal system.
238743vWA_C3HC4_typecd01466VWA C3HC4-type: Von Willebrand factor type A (vWA) domain was originally found in the blood coagulation protein von Willebrand factor (vWF). Typically, the vWA domain is made up of approximately 200 amino acid residues folded into a classic a/b para-rossmann type of fold. The vWA domain, since its discovery, has drawn great interest because of its widespread occurrence and its involvement in a wide variety of important cellular functions. These include basal membrane formation, cell migration, cell differentiation, adhesion, haemostasis, signaling, chromosomal stability, malignant transformation and in immune defenses In integrins these domains form heterodimers while in vWF it forms multimers. There are different interaction surfaces of this domain as seen by the various molecules it complexes with. Ligand binding in most cases is mediated by the presence of a metal ion dependent adhesion site termed as the MIDAS motif that is a characteristic feature of most, if not all A domains. Membes of this subgroup belong to Zinc-finger family as they are found fused to RING finger domains. The MIDAS motif is not conserved in all the members of this family. The function of vWA domains however is not known.
238736vWA_copine_likecd01459VWA Copine: Copines are phospholipid-binding proteins originally identified in paramecium. They are found in human and orthologues have been found in C. elegans and Arabidopsis Thaliana. None have been found in D. Melanogaster or S. Cereviciae. Phylogenetic distribution suggests that copines have been lost in some eukaryotes. No functional properties have been assigned to the VWA domains present in copines. The members of this subgroup contain a functional MIDAS motif based on their preferential binding to magnesium and manganese. However, the MIDAS motif is not totally conserved, in most cases the MIDAS consists of the sequence DxTxS instead of the motif DxSxS that is found in most cases. The C2 domains present in copines mediate phospholipid binding.
238750vWA_CTRPcd01473CTRP for CS protein-TRAP-related protein: Adhesion of Plasmodium to host cells is an important phenomenon in parasite invasion and in malaria associated pathology.CTRP encodes a protein containing a putative signal sequence followed by a long extracellular region of 1990 amino acids, a transmembrane domain, and a short cytoplasmic segment. The extracellular region of CTRP contains two separated adhesive domains. The first domain contains six 210-amino acid-long homologous VWA domain repeats. The second domain contains seven repeats of 87-60 amino acids in length, which share similarities with the thrombospondin type 1 domain found in a variety of adhesive molecules. Finally, CTRP also contains consensus motifs found in the superfamily of haematopoietin receptors. The VWA domains in these proteins likely mediate protein-protein interactions.
238754vWA_F09G8-8_typecd01477VWA F09G8.8 type: Von Willebrand factor type A (vWA) domain was originally found in the blood coagulation protein von Willebrand factor (vWF). Typically, the vWA domain is made up of approximately 200 amino acid residues folded into a classic a/b para-rossmann type of fold. The vWA domain, since its discovery, has drawn great interest because of its widespread occurrence and its involvement in a wide variety of important cellular functions. These include basal membrane formation, cell migration, cell differentiation, adhesion, haemostasis, signaling, chromosomal stability, malignant transformation and in immune defenses In integrins these domains form heterodimers while in vWF it forms multimers. There are different interaction surfaces of this domain as seen by the various molecules it complexes with. Ligand binding in most cases is mediated by the presence of a metal ion dependent adhesion site termed as the MIDAS motif that is a characteristic feature of most, if not all A domains. The members of this subgroup lack the MIDAS motif. This subgroup is found only in C. elegans and the members identified thus far are always found fused to a C-Lectin type domain. Biochemical function thus far has not be attributed to any of the members of this subgroup.
218579WGRpfam05406WGR domain. This domain is found in a variety of polyA polymerases as well as the E. coli molybdate metabolism regulator and other proteins of unknown function. I have called this domain WGR after the most conserved central motif of the domain. The domain is found in isolation in proteins such as Rhizobium radiobacter ych and is between 70 and 80 residues in length. I propose that this may be a nucleic acid binding domain.
214814WGRsmart00773Proposed nucleic acid binding domain. This domain is named after its most conserved central motif. It is found in a variety of polyA polymerases as well as in molybdate metabolism regulators (e.g. in E.coli) and other proteins of unknown function. The domain is found in isolation in some proteins and is between 70 and 80 residues in length. It is proposed that it may be a nucleic acid binding domain.
238605WHEPGMRS_RNAcd01200EPRS-like_RNA binding domain. This short RNA-binding domain is found in several higher eukaryote aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). It is found in three copies in the mammalian bifunctional EPRS in a region that separates the N-terminal GluRS from the C-terminal ProRS. In the Drosophila EPRS, this domain is repeated six times. It is found at the N-terminus of TrpRS, HisRS and GlyR and at the C-terminus of MetRS. This domain consists of a helix- turn- helix structure, which is similar to other RNA-binding proteins. It is involved in both protein-RNA interactions by binding tRNA and protein-protein interactions, which are important for the formation of aaRSs into multienzyme complexes.
99899WHSC1_relatedcd05838The PWWP domain was first identified in the WHSC1 (Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate 1) protein, a protein implicated in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS). When translocated, WHSC1 plays a role in lymphoid multiple myeloma (MM) disease, also known as plasmacytoma. WHCS1 proteins typically contain two copies of the PWWP domain. The PWWP domain, named for a conserved Pro-Trp-Trp-Pro motif, is a small domain consisting of 100-150 amino acids. The PWWP domain is found in numerous proteins that are involved in cell division, growth and differentiation. Most PWWP-domain proteins seem to be nuclear, often DNA-binding, proteins that function as transcription factors regulating a variety of developmental processes.
203386YchF-GTPase_Cpfam06071Protein of unknown function (DUF933). This domain is found at the C terminus of the YchF GTP-binding protein and is possibly related to the ubiquitin-like and MoaD/ThiS superfamilies.
206665YihA_EngBcd01876YihA (EngB) GTPase family. The YihA (EngB) subfamily of GTPases is typified by the E. coli YihA, an essential protein involved in cell division control. YihA and its orthologs are small proteins that typically contain less than 200 amino acid residues and consists of the GTPase domain only (some of the eukaryotic homologs contain an N-terminal extension of about 120 residues that might be involved in organellar targeting). Homologs of yihA are found in most Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, with the exception of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The broad-spectrum nature of YihA and its essentiality for cell viability in bacteria make it an attractive antibacterial target.
220784zf-4CXXC_R1pfam10497Zinc-finger domain of monoamine-oxidase A repressor R1. R1 is a transcription factor repressor that inhibits monoamine oxidase A gene expression. This domain is a four-CXXC zinc finger putative DNA-binding domain found at the C-terminal end of R1. The domain carries 12 cysteines of which four pairs are of the CXXC type.
219431zf-CWpfam07496CW-type Zinc Finger. This domain appears to be a zinc finger. The alignment shows four conserved cysteine residues and a conserved tryptophan. It was first identified by, and is predicted to be a "highly specialised mononuclear four-cysteine zinc finger...that plays a role in DNA binding and/or promoting protein-protein interactions in complicated eukaryotic processes including...chromatin methylation status and early embryonic development." Weak homology to pfam00628 further evidences these predictions (personal obs: C Yeats). Twelve different CW-domain-containing protein subfamilies are described, with different subfamilies being characteristic of vertebrates, higher plants and other animals in which these domain is found.
216554zf-DHHCpfam01529DHHC palmitoyltransferase. This family includes the well known DHHC zinc binding domain as well as three of the four conserved transmembrane regions found in this family of palmitoyltransferase enzymes.
191362zf-nanospfam05741Nanos RNA binding domain. This family consists of several conserved novel zinc finger domains found in the eukaryotic proteins Nanos and Xcat-2. In Drosophila melanogaster, Nanos functions as a localised determinant of posterior pattern. Nanos RNA is localised to the posterior pole of the maturing egg cell and encodes a protein that emanates from this localised source. Nanos acts as a translational repressor and thereby establishes a gradient of the morphogen Hunchback. Xcat-2 is found in the vegetal cortical region and is inherited by the vegetal blasomeres during development, and is degraded very early in development. The localised and maternally restricted expression of Xcat-2 RNA suggests a role for its protein in setting up regional differences in gene expression that occur early in development.
239807ZnMc_astacin_likecd04280Zinc-dependent metalloprotease, astacin_like subfamily or peptidase family M12A, a group of zinc-dependent proteolytic enzymes with a HExxH zinc-binding site/active site. Members of this family may have an amino terminal propeptide, which is cleaved to yield the active protease domain, which is consequently always found at the N-terminus in multi-domain architectures. This family includes: astacin, a digestive enzyme from Crayfish; meprin, a multiple domain membrane component that is constructed from a homologous alpha and beta chain, proteins involved in (bone) morphogenesis, tolloid from drosophila, and the sea urchin SPAN protein, which may also play a role in development.
176218Zn_ADH2cd08256Alcohol dehydrogenases of the MDR family. This group has the characteristic catalytic and structural zinc-binding sites of the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases of the MDR family. The medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, which contains the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn) and related proteins, is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. MDRs display a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P)-binding Rossmann fold domain of a beta-alpha form and an N-terminal catalytic domain with distant homology to GroES. The MDR group contains a host of activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. Active site zinc has a catalytic role, while structural zinc aids in stability.
176226Zn_ADH3cd08265Alcohol dehydrogenases of the MDR family. This group resembles the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase and has the catalytic and structural zinc-binding sites characteristic of this group. The medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, which contains the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn) and related proteins, is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. MDRs display a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P) binding-Rossmann fold domain of a beta-alpha form and an N-terminal catalytic domain with distant homology to GroES. The MDR group contains a host of activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. Active site zinc has a catalytic role, while structural zinc aids in stability. ADH-like proteins typically form dimers (typically higher plants, mammals) or tetramers (yeast, bacteria), and generally have 2 tightly bound zinc atoms per subunit. The active site zinc is coordinated by a histidine, two cysteines, and a water molecule. The second zinc seems to play a structural role, affects subunit interactions, and is typically coordinated by 4 cysteines. Other MDR members have only a catalytic zinc, and some contain no coordinated zinc.
176219Zn_ADH4cd08258Alcohol dehydrogenases of the MDR family. This group shares the zinc coordination sites of the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases. The medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, which contains the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn) and related proteins, is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. MDRs display a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P)-binding Rossmann fold domain of an beta-alpha form and an N-terminal catalytic domain with distant homology to GroES. The MDR group contains a host of activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. Active site zinc has a catalytic role, while structural zinc aids in stability. ADH-like proteins typically form dimers (typically higher plants, mammals) or tetramers (yeast, bacteria), and generally have 2 tightly bound zinc atoms per subunit. The active site zinc is coordinated by a histidine, two cysteines, and a water molecule. The second zinc seems to play a structural role, affects subunit interactions, and is typically coordinated by 4 cysteines.
176222Zn_ADH7cd08261Alcohol dehydrogenases of the MDR family. This group contains members identified as related to zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase and other members of the MDR family. The medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, which contains the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn) and related proteins, is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. MDRs display a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P)-binding Rossmann fold domain of a beta-alpha form and an N-terminal catalytic domain with distant homology to GroES. The MDR group includes various activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. Active site zinc has a catalytic role, while structural zinc aids in stability. ADH-like proteins typically form dimers (typically higher plants, mammals) or tetramers (yeast, bacteria), and generally have 2 tightly bound zinc atoms per subunit. The active site zinc is coordinated by a histidine, two cysteines, and a water molecule. The second zinc seems to play a structural role, affects subunit interactions, and is typically coordinated by 4 cysteines.
176223Zn_ADH8cd08262Alcohol dehydrogenases of the MDR family. The medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, which contains the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn) and related proteins, is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. MDRs display a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P)-binding Rossmann fold domain of a beta-alpha form and an N-terminal catalytic domain with distant homology to GroES. The MDR group contains a host of activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. Active site zinc has a catalytic role, while structural zinc aids in stability. ADH-like proteins typically form dimers (typically higher plants, mammals) or tetramers (yeast, bacteria), and generally have 2 tightly bound zinc atoms per subunit. The active site zinc is coordinated by a histidine, two cysteines, and a water molecule. The second zinc seems to play a structural role, affects subunit interactions, and is typically coordinated by 4 cysteines.
176230Zn_ADH9cd08269Alcohol dehydrogenases of the MDR family. The medium chain dehydrogenases/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family, which contains the zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-Zn) and related proteins, is a diverse group of proteins related to the first identified member, class I mammalian ADH. MDRs display a broad range of activities and are distinguished from the smaller short chain dehydrogenases (~ 250 amino acids vs. the ~ 350 amino acids of the MDR). The MDR proteins have 2 domains: a C-terminal NAD(P)-binding Rossmann fold domain of a beta-alpha form and an N-terminal catalytic domain with distant homology to GroES. The MDR group contains a host of activities, including the founding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), quinone reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, butanediol DH, ketose reductase, cinnamyl reductase, and numerous others. The zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent interconversion of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. Active site zinc has a catalytic role, while structural zinc aids in stability.



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