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  Domain Name: Glyoxalase_I
Glyoxalase I catalyzes the isomerization of the hemithioacetal, formed by a 2-oxoaldehyde and glutathione, to S-D-lactoylglutathione. Glyoxalase I (also known as lactoylglutathione lyase; EC is part of the glyoxalase system, a two-step system for detoxifying methylglyoxal, a side product of glycolysis. This system is responsible for the conversion of reactive, acyclic alpha-oxoaldehydes into the corresponding alpha-hydroxyacids and involves 2 enzymes, glyoxalase I and II. Glyoxalase I catalyses an intramolecular redox reaction of the hemithioacetal (formed from methylglyoxal and glutathione) to form the thioester, S-D-lactoylglutathione. This reaction involves the transfer of two hydrogen atoms from C1 to C2 of the methylglyoxal, and proceeds via an ene-diol intermediate. Glyoxalase I has a requirement for bound metal ions for catalysis. Eukaryotic glyoxalase I prefers the divalent cation zinc as cofactor, whereas Escherichia coil and other prokaryotic glyoxalase I uses nickel. However, eukaryotic Trypanosomatid parasites also use nickel as a cofactor, which could possibly be explained by acquiring their GLOI gene by horizontal gene transfer. Human glyoxalase I is a two-domain enzyme and it has the structure of a domain-swapped dimer with two active sites located at the dimer interface. In yeast, in various plants, insects and Plasmodia, glyoxalase I is four-domain, possibly the result of a further gene duplication and an additional gene fusing event.
No pairwise interactions are available for this conserved domain.

Total Mutations Found: 2
Total Disease Mutations Found: 0
This domain occurred 3 times on human genes (5 proteins).

 If you've navigated here from a protein, hovering over a position on the weblogo will display the corresponding protein position for that domain position.

 The histograms below the weblogo indicate mutations found on the domain. Red is for disease (OMIM) and blue is for SNPs.

 Functional Features are displayed as orange boxes under the histograms. You can choose which features are displayed in the box below.

Range on the Protein:  

   Protein ID            Protein Position

Domain Position:  

Feature Name:Total Found:
active site
metal binding site
glutathione binding site
dimer interface

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Please Cite: Peterson, T.A., Adadey, A., Santana-Cruz ,I., Sun, Y., Winder A, Kann, M.G., (2010) DMDM: Domain Mapping of Disease Mutations. Bioinformatics 26 (19), 2458-2459.

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